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Land Degradation by Soil Erosion in Nepal: A Review

1
School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
2
National Maize Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, P.O. Box 44209, Chitwan, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soil Syst. 2019, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems3010012
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Erosion and Land Degradation)
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PDF [3726 KB, uploaded 25 February 2019]
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Abstract

Land degradation, particularly soil erosion, is currently a major challenge for Nepal. With a high rate of population growth, subsistence-based rural economy, and increasingly intense rainfall events in the monsoon season, Nepal is prone to several forms of land degradation, such as floods, landslides, and soil erosion. To understand the causes, impacts, and possible management options for soil erosion, a review on the causal factors, status, and amelioration measures for land degradation in Nepal was conducted based on recent information available in national and international journals and grey literature. Intense rainfall and conventional tillage practices coupled with poor soil structure and steep slopes are the main drivers of soil erosion. Soil erosion leads to losses in soil and crop productivity, pollution of land and water resources, and a loss of farm income. Strategies to manage erosion include mulching, cover cropping, contour farming, strip cropping, and conservation agriculture practices, along with bioengineering techniques. Land degradation issues are a prime policy focus in Nepal, including national three- and five-year plans. However, these policies have been generally ineffective in reducing soil erosion, landslides, and floods in relation to the set targets. Realistic plans need to be formulated in Nepal focusing more on capacity enhancement and local participation to actively influence land-degradation processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation tillage; land-use; nutrient loss; soil erosion conservation tillage; land-use; nutrient loss; soil erosion
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Chalise, D.; Kumar, L.; Kristiansen, P. Land Degradation by Soil Erosion in Nepal: A Review. Soil Syst. 2019, 3, 12.

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