Next Article in Journal
Iron and Manganese Biogeochemistry in Forested Coal Mine Spoil
Next Article in Special Issue
Soil Degradation Mapping in Drylands Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Data
Previous Article in Journal
Accurate and Precise Prediction of Soil Properties from a Large Mid-Infrared Spectral Library
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Land Degradation by Soil Erosion in Nepal: A Review

School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
National Maize Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, P.O. Box 44209, Chitwan, Nepal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soil Syst. 2019, 3(1), 12;
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Erosion and Land Degradation)
PDF [3726 KB, uploaded 25 February 2019]


Land degradation, particularly soil erosion, is currently a major challenge for Nepal. With a high rate of population growth, subsistence-based rural economy, and increasingly intense rainfall events in the monsoon season, Nepal is prone to several forms of land degradation, such as floods, landslides, and soil erosion. To understand the causes, impacts, and possible management options for soil erosion, a review on the causal factors, status, and amelioration measures for land degradation in Nepal was conducted based on recent information available in national and international journals and grey literature. Intense rainfall and conventional tillage practices coupled with poor soil structure and steep slopes are the main drivers of soil erosion. Soil erosion leads to losses in soil and crop productivity, pollution of land and water resources, and a loss of farm income. Strategies to manage erosion include mulching, cover cropping, contour farming, strip cropping, and conservation agriculture practices, along with bioengineering techniques. Land degradation issues are a prime policy focus in Nepal, including national three- and five-year plans. However, these policies have been generally ineffective in reducing soil erosion, landslides, and floods in relation to the set targets. Realistic plans need to be formulated in Nepal focusing more on capacity enhancement and local participation to actively influence land-degradation processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation tillage; land-use; nutrient loss; soil erosion conservation tillage; land-use; nutrient loss; soil erosion

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chalise, D.; Kumar, L.; Kristiansen, P. Land Degradation by Soil Erosion in Nepal: A Review. Soil Syst. 2019, 3, 12.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Soil Syst. EISSN 2571-8789 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top