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Effect of Fermented Rice Drink “Amazake” on Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease: A Pilot Study

1
Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
2
Liver Center, Saga University Hospital, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
3
Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
4
Education and Research Center for Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
5
Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Honjo-cho, Saga 840-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elisabetta Albi
Reports 2021, 4(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4040036
Received: 18 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
The worldwide increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem. Obesity and diabetes are risk factors for NAFLD and the development of liver fibrosis is a risk factor for liver cancer. Periodontal disease bacteria can also exacerbate NAFLD. We previously reported that amazake, a traditional Japanese fermented food, improves the quality of life (QOL) of patients with liver cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of amazake intake on NAFLD patients with periodontal disease. Ten patients (mean age: 57.1 ± 19.2 years) consumed 100 g of amazake daily for 60 days. On days 0 and 60, their body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, serum biochemical parameters, periodontal disease bacteria in saliva, and ten visual analog scales (VASs), namely, sense of abdomen distension, edema, fatigue, muscle cramps, loss of appetite, taste disorder, constipation, diarrhea, depression, and sleep disorder, were measured. For periodontal bacteria, the numbers of six types of bacteria in saliva (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium necleatum) and P. gingivalis-specific fimA genotype were determined. After 60 days of amazake consumption, eosinophils (p < 0.05), immune reactive insulin (IRI) (p < 0.01), and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05) had significantly increased and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (p < 0.01), muscle cramps (p < 0.05), and depression (p < 0.05) had significantly decreased. All subjective symptoms improved after amazake intake. No change was observed in the periodontal bacteria. In conclusion, amazake significantly decreased TNFα and improved the QOL of the patients with NAFLD and periodontitis. However, caution should be exercised because amazake, which is manufactured using techniques that lead to concentrations of glucose from the saccharification of rice starch, may worsen glucose metabolism in NAFLD patients. Amazake may be an effective food for improving the symptoms of a fatty liver if energy intake is regulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: amazake; NAFLD; periodontal disease bacteria; quality of life amazake; NAFLD; periodontal disease bacteria; quality of life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nagao, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Kawaguchi, A.; Kitagaki, H. Effect of Fermented Rice Drink “Amazake” on Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease: A Pilot Study. Reports 2021, 4, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4040036

AMA Style

Nagao Y, Takahashi H, Kawaguchi A, Kitagaki H. Effect of Fermented Rice Drink “Amazake” on Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease: A Pilot Study. Reports. 2021; 4(4):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4040036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nagao, Yumiko, Hirokazu Takahashi, Atsushi Kawaguchi, and Hiroshi Kitagaki. 2021. "Effect of Fermented Rice Drink “Amazake” on Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease: A Pilot Study" Reports 4, no. 4: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4040036

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