We report on a six-month-old infant admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with recurrent severe pneumonia. The mother was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, but initially failed to disclose this to doctors. Neither did she report the grandmother of the child’s chronic coughing, likely due to tuberculosis (TB). The infant was diagnosed with X-pert MTB/RIF®
confirmed TB and tested positive for HIV infection. Once a correct diagnosis was established, the child demonstrated good recovery with appropriate TB and antiretroviral treatment (ART). The case demonstrates the importance of including TB in the differential diagnosis for young children not responding to first-line pneumonia treatment, especially in TB endemic areas. Taking a meticulous TB and HIV exposure history, with careful consideration of potential social stigma, is essential. It also demonstrates how the inaccessibility of HIV results and the absence of a continuous patient record may jeopardize patient care.
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