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Article

Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printing: Quantification of Exposure to Airborne Particles

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IRES—Innovation in Research & Engineering Solutions, Rue Koningin Astridlaan 59B, 1780 Wemmel, Belgium
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BioG3D P.C., 1 Lavriou Str., Technological & Cultural Park of Lavrion, 19500 Lavrion, Greece
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thanasis Triantafillou and Costas Charitidis
J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6050119
Received: 28 February 2022 / Revised: 1 April 2022 / Accepted: 14 April 2022 / Published: 19 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Structures)
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) has been established as a widely practiced Additive Manufacturing technique, using various thermoplastic filaments. Carbon fibre (CF) additives enhance mechanical properties of the materials. The main operational hazard of the FFF technique explored in the literature is the emission of Ultrafine Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds. Exposure data regarding novel materials and larger scale operations is, however, still lacking. In this work, a thorough exposure assessment measurement campaign is presented for a workplace applying FFF 3D printing in various setups (four different commercial devices, including a modified commercial printer) and applying various materials (polylactic acid, thermoplastic polyurethane, copolyamide, polyethylene terephthalate glycol) and CF-reinforced thermoplastics (thermoplastic polyurethane, polylactic acid, polyamide). Portable exposure assessment instruments are employed, based on an established methodology, to study the airborne particle exposure potential of each process setup. The results revealed a distinct exposure profile for each process, necessitating a different safety approach per setup. Crucially, high potential for exposure is detected in processes with two printers working simultaneously. An updated engineering control scheme is applied to control exposures for the modified commercial printer. The establishment of a flexible safety system is vital for workplaces that apply FFF 3D printing. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; exposure assessment; occupational safety; ultrafine particles 3D printing; exposure assessment; occupational safety; ultrafine particles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saliakas, S.; Karayannis, P.; Kokkinopoulos, I.; Damilos, S.; Gkartzou, E.; Zouboulis, P.; Karatza, A.; Koumoulos, E.P. Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printing: Quantification of Exposure to Airborne Particles. J. Compos. Sci. 2022, 6, 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6050119

AMA Style

Saliakas S, Karayannis P, Kokkinopoulos I, Damilos S, Gkartzou E, Zouboulis P, Karatza A, Koumoulos EP. Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printing: Quantification of Exposure to Airborne Particles. Journal of Composites Science. 2022; 6(5):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6050119

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saliakas, Stratos, Panagiotis Karayannis, Ioannis Kokkinopoulos, Spyridon Damilos, Eleni Gkartzou, Panagiotis Zouboulis, Anna Karatza, and Elias P. Koumoulos. 2022. "Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printing: Quantification of Exposure to Airborne Particles" Journal of Composites Science 6, no. 5: 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs6050119

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