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Article

In-Line Height Measurement Technique for Directed Energy Deposition Processes

1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Deusto, Avenida de las Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Spain
2
LORTEK Technological Centre, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Arranomendia Kalea 4A, 20240 Ordizia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven Y. Liang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5030085
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 4 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
Directed energy deposition (DED) is a family of additive manufacturing technologies. With these processes, metal parts are built layer by layer, introducing dynamics that propagate in time and layer-domains, which implies additional complexity and consequently, the resulting part quality is hard to predict. Control of the deposit layer thickness and height is a critical issue since it impacts on geometrical accuracy, process stability, and the overall quality of the product. Therefore, online feedback height control for DED processes with proper sensor strategies is required. This work presents a novel vision-based triangulation technique through an off-axis located CCD camera synchronized with a 640 nm wavelength pulsed illumination laser. Image processing and machine vision techniques allow in-line height measurement right after metal solidification. The linearity and the precision of the proposed setup are validated through off-and in-process trials in the laser metal deposition (LMD) process. Besides, the performance of the developed in-line inspection system has also been tested for the Arc based DED process and compared against experimental weld bead characterization data. In this last case, the system additionally allowed for the measurement of weld bead width and contact angles, which are critical in first runs of multilayer buildups. View Full-Text
Keywords: directed energy deposition; in-line height measurement; machine vision; optical monitoring; sensors; additive manufacturing directed energy deposition; in-line height measurement; machine vision; optical monitoring; sensors; additive manufacturing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borovkov, H.; de la Yedra, A.G.; Zurutuza, X.; Angulo, X.; Alvarez, P.; Pereira, J.C.; Cortes, F. In-Line Height Measurement Technique for Directed Energy Deposition Processes. J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5, 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5030085

AMA Style

Borovkov H, de la Yedra AG, Zurutuza X, Angulo X, Alvarez P, Pereira JC, Cortes F. In-Line Height Measurement Technique for Directed Energy Deposition Processes. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing. 2021; 5(3):85. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5030085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borovkov, Herman, Aitor G. de la Yedra, Xabier Zurutuza, Xabier Angulo, Pedro Alvarez, Juan C. Pereira, and Fernando Cortes. 2021. "In-Line Height Measurement Technique for Directed Energy Deposition Processes" Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing 5, no. 3: 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5030085

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