Next Article in Journal
Drone-Based High-Resolution Tracking of Aquatic Vertebrates
Previous Article in Journal
UAVs in Support of Algal Bloom Research: A Review of Current Applications and Future Opportunities
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Monitoring Human Visual Behavior during the Observation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Videos

Polytech Nantes, Laboratoire des Sciences du Numérique de Nantes (LS2N), Université de Nantes, 44306 Nantes CEDEX 3, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Drones 2018, 2(4), 36;
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
PDF [1732 KB, uploaded 23 October 2018]


The present article describes an experimental study towards the examination of human visual behavior during the observation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) videos. Experimental performance is based on the collection and the quantitative & qualitative analysis of eye tracking data. The results highlight that UAV flight altitude serves as a dominant specification that affects the visual attention process, while the presence of sky in the video background seems to be the less affecting factor in this procedure. Additionally, the main surrounding environment, the main size of the observed object as well as the main perceived angle between UAV’s flight plain and ground appear to have an equivalent influence in observers’ visual reaction during the exploration of such stimuli. Moreover, the provided heatmap visualizations indicate the most salient locations in the used UAVs videos. All produced data (raw gaze data, fixation and saccade events, and heatmap visualizations) are freely distributed to the scientific community as a new dataset (EyeTrackUAV) that can be served as an objective ground truth in future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: UAVs; videos; visual attention; eye tracking; surveillance; dataset UAVs; videos; visual attention; eye tracking; surveillance; dataset

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krassanakis, V.; Perreira Da Silva, M.; Ricordel, V. Monitoring Human Visual Behavior during the Observation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Videos. Drones 2018, 2, 36.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Drones EISSN 2504-446X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top