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The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and Its Correlations with Metabolic Parameters in a Group of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus †

Department of Internal Medicine II, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Faculty of Medicine and Biological Sciences, University “Ștefan cel Mare” of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 14th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2023, Belgrade, Serbia, 14–17 November 2023.
Proceedings 2023, 91(1), 188;
Published: 2 February 2024
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 14th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2023)


Inflammation plays a key role in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk. Subclinical inflammation has many causes, but diet seems to be a major component in the prognosis of related diseases. In nutritional research methodologies, there has recently been tremendous progress in identifying scores that can assess the inflammatory traits of diet. One of these scores is the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®). The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake and calculate the DII® in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlate it with other metabolic parameters. Methods. We evaluated a group of patients with T2DM who presented for their routine checkup in our clinic. We assessed each patient’s anthropometric and metabolic parameters and evaluated dietary intake using EPIC FFQ, which was later interpreted using FETA. We calculated the DII® using the validated formula. Results. Our study was conducted on 263 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, among which 108 were men (41.1%). The average age in the studied population was 62.46 +/− 9.45 years, without significant differences between men and women. Only 16 patients (6.1%) were of normal weight, 86 were overweight (32.7%) and 161 presented as obese (61.2%). Men in our study group showed a significantly higher DII score than women, and they also had significantly worse metabolic parameters. The DII correlated with weight and body fat percentage. Conclusions. The DII showed a relatively high proinflammatory diet in patients with T2DM studied and found that men were more exposed to diet inflammation than women. This might suggest that nutritional interventions in patients with T2DM should be targeted particularly to this group of patients.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, L.I.A. and R.S.; methodology, L.I.A.; software, A.D.P.; validation, A.G., O.N. and L.M.; formal analysis, M.G.; investigation, R.S.; resources, A.G.; data curation, L.M.; writing—original draft preparation, L.I.A.; writing—review and editing, L.I.A.; visualization, M.G.; supervision, L.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” (21.12.2019).” for studies involving humans.

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because the data are part of an ongoing study. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to [email protected].

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arhire, L.I.; Soimaru, R.; Gherasim, A.; Nita, O.; Popa, A.D.; Mihalache, L.; Graur, M. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and Its Correlations with Metabolic Parameters in a Group of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proceedings 2023, 91, 188.

AMA Style

Arhire LI, Soimaru R, Gherasim A, Nita O, Popa AD, Mihalache L, Graur M. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and Its Correlations with Metabolic Parameters in a Group of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proceedings. 2023; 91(1):188.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arhire, Lidia Iuliana, Raluca Soimaru, Andreea Gherasim, Otilia Nita, Alina Delia Popa, Laura Mihalache, and Mariana Graur. 2023. "The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and Its Correlations with Metabolic Parameters in a Group of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus" Proceedings 91, no. 1: 188.

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