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Categorized Dietotype Emergence by Exploratory Factorial Analyses with Axial Nutrition–Health Precision Potential †

Edwin Fernández-Cruz
Víctor de la O
Cristina Fernández
Alfonso L. Calle-Pascual
Angélica Larrad
José Luis Espadas
4 and
Jose Alfredo Martínez
IMDEA-Food Institute (Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies), 28049 Madrid, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Medicine II, Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital San Carlos (UHSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 14th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2023, Belgrade, Serbia, 14–17 November 2023.
Proceedings 2023, 91(1), 135;
Published: 30 January 2024
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 14th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2023)


Introduction: Dietary habits and healthy lifestyles are crucial factors impacting cardiometabolic health and quality of life. Precision nutrition has emerged as a valuable tool to monitor the multiple factors participating in metabolic wellbeing and to examine the possible interactions between diet and health. One such approach involves the use of dimensional reduction methods, which aim to classify subjects into distinct nutritional subgroups or dietotypes based on differential dietary intakes and health outcomes. Methods and Results: A multidimensional exploratory analysis using carefully collected dietary data (Validated FFQ/72 h Recall questionnaires) as well as anthropometric and biochemical determinations from the DIETARY DEAL pilot-study was conducted to define specific dietary profiles. A factorial analysis design was performed, which allowed to identify four distinct clustering factors, characterized as factor 1, or a proto-omnivorous food profile (F1p-O); factor 2, or a pro-vegetarian plant-based diet (F2p-V); factor 3, or a pro-Mediterranean pattern (F3p-M); and factor 4, or a pro-health pescatarian dietary regime (F4p-P). Statistical differences concerning food group consumption (g/d) were found. Thus, F1p-O evidenced higher consumption of fruits, fatty fish, and white and red meat; F2p-V was richer in vegetables, fruits, pulses, and whole grains; F3p-M had olive oil as the most representative food/ingredient; and F4p-P elicited consumption of healthy foods such a vegetables and fatty fish and the avoidance of refined grains, red meats, whole dairy, and ultra-processed solids. After adjusting for potential confounders and energy using the residual method, F1p-O showed a direct relationship with fat-free mass (β = +4.4; p < 0.001), and skeletal muscle mass (β = +2.6; p < 0.001), while the association with F2p-V was the opposite in such somatic markers (β = −2.3; p < 0.001; β = −3.1; p < 0.001; respectively). F3p-M was inversely linked with IL-6 and zinc (β = −0.9; p < 0.05; β = −5.3; p < 0.05, respectively), and F4p-P was coupled with selenium intake in age- and sex-adjusted models (β = +5.6; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that proto-omnivorous dietary patterns are positively associated with lean mass components, while plant-based diets showed opposite trends. Mediterranean dietary patterns prompted a possible association with anti-inflammatory profiles. These results highlight the potential utility of dimensional reduction methods in understanding the occurrence of qualitative clustered dietotypes relating diet with health outcomes for prescribing precision nutrition.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, J.A.M. and A.L.C.-P.; methodology, V.d.l.O. and A.L.; validation, C.F., J.A.M. and A.L.C.-P.; formal analysis, V.d.l.O. and J.L.E.; investigation, A.L. and E.F.-C.; resources, J.A.M. and A.L.C.-P.; data curation, V.d.l.O.; writing—original draft preparation, V.d.l.O. and E.F.-C.; writing—review and editing, V.d.l.O. and E.F.-C.; visualization, V.d.l.O. and J.A.M.; supervision, J.A.M. and A.L.C.-P.; project administration, C.F.; funding acquisition, J.A.M. and A.L.C.-P. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by the European Union, through the Instituto de Salud Carlos III the project Dietary Assessment and further Development of Biomarkers for All (DIETARY DEAL) (ref. AC21/00038) and by the Community of Madrid trough the Synergic R&D Projects in New and Emerging Scientific Areas on the Frontier of Science and Interdisciplinary Nature of The Community of Madrid, METAINFLAMATION-Y2020/BIO-6600.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Ethics Committee of University Hospital San Carlos (22/363-E, 7 June 2022).

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

Data are contained within the article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Cruz, E.; de la O, V.; Fernández, C.; Calle-Pascual, A.L.; Larrad, A.; Espadas, J.L.; Martínez, J.A. Categorized Dietotype Emergence by Exploratory Factorial Analyses with Axial Nutrition–Health Precision Potential. Proceedings 2023, 91, 135.

AMA Style

Fernández-Cruz E, de la O V, Fernández C, Calle-Pascual AL, Larrad A, Espadas JL, Martínez JA. Categorized Dietotype Emergence by Exploratory Factorial Analyses with Axial Nutrition–Health Precision Potential. Proceedings. 2023; 91(1):135.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-Cruz, Edwin, Víctor de la O, Cristina Fernández, Alfonso L. Calle-Pascual, Angélica Larrad, José Luis Espadas, and Jose Alfredo Martínez. 2023. "Categorized Dietotype Emergence by Exploratory Factorial Analyses with Axial Nutrition–Health Precision Potential" Proceedings 91, no. 1: 135.

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