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Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders †

Liesbeth van der Heide
Internatinoal Centre for Counter-Terrorism—The Hague (ICCT), Leiden University, 2311 EZ Leiden, The Netherlands
Presented at the Global Safety Evaluation Workshop, Online, 1 July–31 December 2020.
Proceedings 2021, 77(1), 21;
Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Global Safety Evaluation (GSE) Network Workshop)


While much time and effort in terrorism studies has gone into finding an answer to the question of why people radicalise, the question of how to rehabilitate individuals has received renewed attention with the return of many citizens who had joined the Islamic State. This has led to an increase in both programs and interventions aimed at ‘deradicalising’ or ‘disengaging’ individuals as well as studies that aim to assess the effectiveness of such efforts. This article/presentation provides an overview of the main elements of rehabilitation and reintegration programs for violent extremist offenders based on international research assessing 34 rehabilitation and reintegration programs. In the second half of the article, an evaluation of the Dutch approach to reintegrating violent extremist offenders in and after prison is presented. Finally, the main lessons learned from these programs as well as the academic literature are discussed.

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MDPI and ACS Style

van der Heide, L. Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders. Proceedings 2021, 77, 21.

AMA Style

van der Heide L. Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders. Proceedings. 2021; 77(1):21.

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Heide, Liesbeth. 2021. "Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders" Proceedings 77, no. 1: 21.

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