#
Finding the Perfect Match: Different Heavy-Duty Mobile Applications Call for Different Actuators^{ †}

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Machine–Actuator-Match Evaluation Concept

#### 2.1. Definition of a “Good Match”

**problem aspects**. This can be identified by looking at the

**problematic actuator characteristics**concerning each problem aspect and the

**HDMM attributes**that define how significant each problem aspect is.

#### 2.2. Evaluation Algorithm

- (1)
- For each actuator–HDMM-match evaluation, $n\in \mathbb{N}$ problem aspects are taken into account.
- (2)
- For each problem aspect $i\in [1..n]$, a problematic actuator characteristic and an HDMM attribute exist.
- (3)
- Every actuator concept receives a number ${c}_{i}\in [0..5]$ where 0 means the problematic actuator characteristic for problem aspect i is “not applying” and 5 it is “strongly applying”.
- (4)
- For each HDMM type, the numbers ${a}_{i}\in [0..5]$ mean that the HDMM attribute for problem aspect i is 0 “not expressed” to 5 "strongly expressed".
- (5)
- If ${c}_{i}$ and ${a}_{i}$ are multiplied, the problem degree of the match concerning problem aspect i is obtained.
- (6)
- Summing up the problem degrees for all n aspects, the so-called mismatch value$mmv$ results.
- (7)
- Finally, among multiple possible matches, the match with the highest mismatch value is the worst, and the match with the lowest mismatch value is the best or “perfect match”.

#### 2.2.1. Considered Match Aspects

#### 2.2.2. Non-Scalable Factors

## 3. Characterization of Heavy-Duty Actuator Concepts

#### 3.1. Valve-Controlled Load-Sensing Actuators

#### 3.2. Electro-Hydraulic Actuators

#### 3.2.1. Baseline Electro-Hydraulic Actuator: Compact Single-Pump Type

#### 3.2.2. Compact Dual-Pump Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

#### 3.2.3. Centralized Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

## 4. Classification of Heavy-Duty Mobile Machine Types

#### 4.1. Compact Excavators

#### 4.2. Mid-Size Wheel Loader

#### 4.3. Backhoe Loader

#### 4.4. Telehandler

## 5. Evaluation of Exemplary Matches and Discussion

## 6. Limitations of Evaluation Concept

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

EHA | electro-hydraulic actuator |

HDMM | heavy-duty mobile machine |

LS | load sensing |

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**Figure 1.**A rough, incomplete classification of linear heavy-duty actuator concepts and of HDMMs as well as the visualization of the resulting potential actuator–HDMM matches.

**Figure 2.**Simplified load sensing system with two actuators (but option for more) and the related pressure-flow diagram for a specific load situation.

**Figure 3.**Simplified schematics of considered EHA types: (

**a**) compact single pump; (

**b**) compact dual pump according to Pedersen et al. [9]; and (

**c**) single-pump centralized.

i | problem aspect | HDMM attribute (${a}_{i}$) | problematic actuator characteristic (${c}_{i}$) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | high component costs for small or rarely used actuators | high number of actuators with low energy consumption | high price per actuator |

2 | achieving large actuator sizes | containing large actuators | issues with larger actuators |

3 | power distribution costs | long distances between actuators and main body of HDMM | high costs per supply-line length |

4 | achieving high actuator power | high actuator power requirements | power-upscaling issues |

5 | energy losses | high energy turnover of implements in general and compared to other machine functions like driving | low single actuator energy efficiency |

6 | energy losses due to simultaneous actuation | high amount of simultaneous actuator operation | low energy efficiency during simultaneous operation of actuators |

7 | making use of energy recuperation | high amount of load braking | no/low recuperation potential |

8 | overheating of components | potentially medium to high environment temperatures | low cooling capability |

LS Valve Controlled | EHA Single Pump | EHA Dual Pump | EHA Centralized | |
---|---|---|---|---|

compact excavator | 71 | 49 | 48 | 51 |

wheel loader | 58 | 55 | 46 | 53 |

backhoe | 59 | 61 | 59 | 57 |

telehandler | 74 | 68 | 56 | 70 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Fassbender, D.; Minav, T. Finding the Perfect Match: Different Heavy-Duty Mobile Applications Call for Different Actuators. *Proceedings* **2020**, *64*, 22.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IeCAT2020-08524

**AMA Style**

Fassbender D, Minav T. Finding the Perfect Match: Different Heavy-Duty Mobile Applications Call for Different Actuators. *Proceedings*. 2020; 64(1):22.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IeCAT2020-08524

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Fassbender, David, and Tatina Minav. 2020. "Finding the Perfect Match: Different Heavy-Duty Mobile Applications Call for Different Actuators" *Proceedings* 64, no. 1: 22.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IeCAT2020-08524