#
On ADS-B Sensor Placement for Secure Wide-Area Multilateration^{ †}

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### Problem Statement

- Find the minimal number of ADS-B receivers and their corresponding placement locations such that the entire airspace is optimally covered (no placement constraints).
- Find the best locations for placing n new sensors (without placement constraints) with respect to the existing deployed sensors.
- Choose the best n sensors from a set of existing proposed sensor locations (that are placed by volunteers who announce their interest in participation with their sensors) that gets the minimum geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) value.

## 2. Preliminaries

#### 2.1. Air-to-Ground ADS-B Signal Propagation

#### 2.2. Time-of-Arrival Localization

#### 2.3. GDOP

#### 2.4. Sensor Deployment Optimality Criteria

#### 2.5. Genetic Algorithm (GA)

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Assumptions

- Receivers are assumed to be deployed on the geoid surface.
- We neglect the obstructing effect of buildings or mountains on the ADS-B signal reception probability.
- We consider the Earth’s curvature as the major impediment to the direct visibility between aircraft and ground-based sensors.

#### 3.2. GDOP Evaluation Principle and Our Objective Function

#### 3.3. System Approach

- Find the set ${\mathcal{S}}_{LOS4pt}^{j}$ of all ADS-B receivers for which Inequality (10) is valid.
- If $|{\mathcal{S}}_{LOS4pt}^{j}|<4$, set $\widehat{{g}_{j}}=\infty $ (the GDOP cannot be evaluated if there are less than four sensors in LOS condition with the aircraft).
- Otherwise, compute the GDOP at ${\mathbf{p}}_{\mathbf{j}}$ for all four-sized subsets of ${\mathcal{S}}_{LOS4pt}^{j}$ using the closed-form expression proved in [7]. Then set $\widehat{{g}_{j}}$ to the minimal value found.

## 4. OSP Problems

#### 4.1. Scenario #1: OSP from Scratch

#### 4.2. Scenario #2: Optimal Network Augmentation

#### 4.3. Scenario #3: Best Sensors to Guarantee a Surveillance Requirement

## 5. Solving the OSP Problems

#### 5.1. Sensor Representation (Chromosomal Representation)

#### 5.2. Fitness Function

#### 5.3. Selection Operation

## 6. Experimental Evaluation

#### 6.1. First Findings and Observations (“Random Sensor Placement”)

#### 6.2. Achieved Results (Receiver Cardinality and Achievable Network-Wide GDOP)

## 7. Related Work

## 8. Conclusions

## References

- Monteiro, M.; Barreto, A.; Kacem, T.; Carvalho, J.; Wijesekera, D.; Costa, P. Detecting malicious ADS-B broadcasts using wide area multilateration. In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE/AIAA 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), Prague, Czech Republic, 13–17 September 2015; pp. 4A3-1–4A3-12. [Google Scholar]
- Nijsure, Y.A.; Kaddoum, G.; Gagnon, G.; Gagnon, F.; Yuen, C.; Mahapatra, R. Adaptive air-to-ground secure communication system based on ADS-B and wide-area multilateration. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
**2015**, 65, 3150–3165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ucinski, D. Optimal Measurement Methods for Distributed Parameter System Identification; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Schäfer, M.; Strohmeier, M.; Lenders, V.; Martinovic, I.; Wilhelm, M. Bringing up OpenSky: A large-scale ADS-B sensor network for research. In Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Berlin, Germany, 15–17 April 2014; pp. 83–94. [Google Scholar]
- Strohbehn, J.W. Line-of-sight wave propagation through the turbulent atmosphere. Proc. IEEE
**1968**, 56, 1301–1318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, C.H.; Feng, K.T.; Chen, C.L.; Tseng, P.H. Wireless location estimation with the assistance of virtual base stations. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
**2008**, 58, 93–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhu, J. Calculation of geometric dilution of precision. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.
**1992**, 28, 893–895. [Google Scholar] - Cai, G.; Chen, B.M.; Lee, T.H. Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Moreno-Salinas, D.; Pascoal, A.; Aranda, J. Sensor networks for optimal target localization with bearings-only measurements in constrained three-dimensional scenarios. Sensors
**2013**, 13, 10386–10417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Miettinen, K. Nonlinear Multiobjective Optimization; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Strohmeier, M.; Martinovic, I.; Lenders, V. A k-NN-based localization approach for crowdsourced air traffic communication networks. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.
**2018**, 54, 1519–1529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Yang, C.; Kaplan, L.; Blasch, E.; Bakich, M. Optimal placement of heterogeneous sensors in target tracking. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Fusion, Chicago, IL, USA, 5–8 July 2011; pp. 1–8. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 1.**Simulated k-coverage heatmap for a random placement of $n=30$ automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B) sensors.

**Figure 2.**Simulated geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) distribution for the random placement of $n=30$ ADS-B sensors. The corresponding k coverage heatmap is given in Figure 1.

**Figure 3.**Simulated k-coverage heatmap for optimal placement of ADS-B sensors after solving scenario one.

**Figure 4.**Simulated GDOP distribution of optimal placement of ADS-B sensors. The corresponding k coverage heatmap is given in Figure 3.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Darabseh, A.; Bitsikas, E.; Tedongmo, B.; Pöpper, C.
On ADS-B Sensor Placement for Secure Wide-Area Multilateration. *Proceedings* **2020**, *59*, 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020059003

**AMA Style**

Darabseh A, Bitsikas E, Tedongmo B, Pöpper C.
On ADS-B Sensor Placement for Secure Wide-Area Multilateration. *Proceedings*. 2020; 59(1):3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020059003

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Darabseh, Ala’, Evangelos Bitsikas, Brice Tedongmo, and Christina Pöpper.
2020. "On ADS-B Sensor Placement for Secure Wide-Area Multilateration" *Proceedings* 59, no. 1: 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2020059003