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Proceedings 2018, 2(11), 690;

Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe

University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
National Public Health Institute, H-1096 Budapest, Hungary
State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology & Agriculture, Center for Biomedicine & Infectious Diseases, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
Medical School, University of Cologne, 50923 Köl, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 3rd EWaS International Conference on “Insights on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus”, Lefkada Island, Greece, 27–30 June 2018.
Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of EWaS3 2018)
PDF [1160 KB, uploaded 17 September 2018]


Measurements of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water have been compiled from over 50 references comprising data from over 20 countries throughout Europe from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, from the Atlantic to the Urals. Data predominantly reported after 2000 and mostly by IMS-IFA based analysis clearly demonstrate the distribution of these waterborne pathogens across all parts of the continent. The presence of these organisms at readily detectable levels in surface water used for public water supply corresponds to epidemiological evidence describing the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and of giardiasis in all countries of Europe. Where the extent of data from individual references has permitted, cumulative frequency analysis has been used to describe typical (median) concentrations and variability (standard deviation). These estimates are presented with accompanying data from elsewhere showing the relation of occurrence levels and degrees of variation as part of a global spectrum.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium; Giardia; water; Europe Cryptosporidium; Giardia; water; Europe
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ongerth, J.E.; Plutzer, J.; Karanis, P. Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe. Proceedings 2018, 2, 690.

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