Next Article in Journal
Network Data Unsupervised Clustering to Anomaly Detection
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4 Nanoparticles by the Sol-Gel Method and Investigation of Its Microwave Absorption Properties at Ku-Band Frequency Using Silicone Rubber
Proceeding Paper

Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe

University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
National Public Health Institute, H-1096 Budapest, Hungary
State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology & Agriculture, Center for Biomedicine & Infectious Diseases, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
Medical School, University of Cologne, 50923 Köl, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 3rd EWaS International Conference on “Insights on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus”, Lefkada Island, Greece, 27–30 June 2018.
Proceedings 2018, 2(11), 690;
Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of EWaS3 2018)
Measurements of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water have been compiled from over 50 references comprising data from over 20 countries throughout Europe from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, from the Atlantic to the Urals. Data predominantly reported after 2000 and mostly by IMS-IFA based analysis clearly demonstrate the distribution of these waterborne pathogens across all parts of the continent. The presence of these organisms at readily detectable levels in surface water used for public water supply corresponds to epidemiological evidence describing the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and of giardiasis in all countries of Europe. Where the extent of data from individual references has permitted, cumulative frequency analysis has been used to describe typical (median) concentrations and variability (standard deviation). These estimates are presented with accompanying data from elsewhere showing the relation of occurrence levels and degrees of variation as part of a global spectrum.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium; Giardia; water; Europe Cryptosporidium; Giardia; water; Europe
MDPI and ACS Style

Ongerth, J.E.; Plutzer, J.; Karanis, P. Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe. Proceedings 2018, 2, 690.

AMA Style

Ongerth JE, Plutzer J, Karanis P. Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe. Proceedings. 2018; 2(11):690.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ongerth, Jerry E., Judit Plutzer, and Panagiotis Karanis. 2018. "Cryptosporidium and Giardia—Levels and Distribution in Surface Water throughout Europe" Proceedings 2, no. 11: 690.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop