Effect of Geometry Variability on Transonic Fan Blade Untwist †
2. Test Cases and Computational Approach
2.1. Test Cases
2.2. Aeroelastic Solver
2.3. APD Computations
2.4. Computational Domain
3. APD Mechanism
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. APD Intensity Map
4.2. Reduced Order Approach
5. APD and Mistuning
6. Conclusions and Future Work
- Through the APD contour map and the loci of peak shock displacement sensitivity, it can be concluded that APD is closely related to the discontinuity/non-linearity in the untwist behaviour of the fan blades.
- Comparison of the two blades’ geometry and the corresponding difference in their APD behaviour reveals that a discontinuous/abrupt transition in the passage shock position exacerbates the APD behaviour. A spin-off idea from this observation is the convergent section of the covered passage (where the passage shock cannot be stabilised) on fan 2 can introduce unsteadiness in the annulus because it prompts shock displacement and further aeromechanical change. In fact, it is previously observed that under certain conditions, APD can be accompanied by a travelling disturbance around the annulus. It is important to investigate the unsteady effect of APD because it can influence the fan blades’ high cycle fatigue life.
- From the results comparison between the reduced order model and the full annulus coupled computation, it is evident that the peak APD conditions at each constant speed line can be located by the reduced order model. This will result in the reduction in computation cost. Therefore, it would be interesting to investigate whether reduced order model can be used to quantify APD intensity such that it can be incorporated into fan blade design approach.
- As demonstrated, APD occurs in close proximity to design point which sets it apart from other types of aeromechanical instabilities (such as flutter) which usually occur at off-design conditions and thus of relatively less concern to the engine manufacturers. This makes it paramount for the manufacturers to comprehend this phenomenon.
- Given that intentional mistuning which is usually used to prevent flutter behaviour (i.e., at off-design conditions) can introduce APD behaviour (close to design condition), it is crucial for engine manufacturers to investigate the APD behaviour.
Conflicts of Interest
|APD||Alternate passage divergence|
|ESS||Engine section stator|
|FFT||Fast Fourier transform|
|MPT||Multiple pure tone|
|OGV||Outlet guide vane|
|SLS||Sea level static|
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|Fan 1||Fan 2|
|Aspect Ratio (Blade Height/Mid-Span Chord)||2.0||2.3|
|Number of Blades||18||26|
|Tip Stagger Angle||63–68||65–70|
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Lu, Y.; Lad, B.; Green, J.; Stapelfeldt, S.; Vahdati, M. Effect of Geometry Variability on Transonic Fan Blade Untwist †. Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2019, 4, 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp4030024
Lu Y, Lad B, Green J, Stapelfeldt S, Vahdati M. Effect of Geometry Variability on Transonic Fan Blade Untwist †. International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power. 2019; 4(3):24. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp4030024Chicago/Turabian Style
Lu, Yaozhi, Bharat Lad, Jeff Green, Sina Stapelfeldt, and Mehdi Vahdati. 2019. "Effect of Geometry Variability on Transonic Fan Blade Untwist †" International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power 4, no. 3: 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp4030024