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Article

Identification, Distribution, and Habitat Suitability Models of Ixodid Tick Species in Cattle in Eastern Bhutan

1
District Veterinary Hospital, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Trashigang 42001, Bhutan
2
Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
3
Department of Geography, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
4
National Centre for Animal Health, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Thimphu 11001, Bhutan
5
Khesar Gyalpo University of Medical Sciences of Bhutan, Thimphu 11001, Bhutan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kinley Wangdi, Elivelton da Silva Fonseca, Apiporn Thinkhamrop Suwannatrai, Marco Pombi and Ayman Khattab
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6010027
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 13 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology of Vector-Borne Diseases)
Tick infestation is the most reported parasitological problem in cattle in Bhutan. In May and June 2019, we collected ticks from 240 cattle in two districts of Eastern Bhutan. Tick presence, diversity, and infestation prevalence were examined by morphological identification of 3600 live adult ticks. The relationships between cattle, geographic factors, and infestation prevalence were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Habitat suitability for the tick species identified was determined using MaxEnt. Four genera and six species of ticks were found. These were Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (70.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 68.7–71.7)), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (18.8% (95% CI: 17.5–20.1)), Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (8.2% (95% CI: 7.3–9.1)), Haemaphysalis spinigera Neumann (2.5% (95% CI: 2–3)), Amblyomma testudinarium Koch (0.19% (95% CI: 0.07–0.4)), and a single unidentified Ixodes sp. Logistic regression indicated that the variables associated with infestation were: longitude and cattle age for R. microplus; latitude for R. haemaphysaloides; and altitude and cattle breed for H. bispinosa and H. spinigera. MaxEnt models showed land cover to be an important predictor for the occurrence of all tick species examined. These findings provide information that can be used to initiate and plan enhanced tick surveillance and subsequent prevention and control programs for ticks and tick-borne diseases in cattle in Bhutan. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick distribution; habitat suitability; MaxEnt model; Bhutan tick distribution; habitat suitability; MaxEnt model; Bhutan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Namgyal, J.; Lysyk, T.J.; Couloigner, I.; Checkley, S.; Gurung, R.B.; Tenzin, T.; Dorjee, S.; Cork, S.C. Identification, Distribution, and Habitat Suitability Models of Ixodid Tick Species in Cattle in Eastern Bhutan. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6, 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6010027

AMA Style

Namgyal J, Lysyk TJ, Couloigner I, Checkley S, Gurung RB, Tenzin T, Dorjee S, Cork SC. Identification, Distribution, and Habitat Suitability Models of Ixodid Tick Species in Cattle in Eastern Bhutan. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2021; 6(1):27. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6010027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Namgyal, Jamyang, Tim J. Lysyk, Isabelle Couloigner, Sylvia Checkley, Ratna B. Gurung, Tenzin Tenzin, Sithar Dorjee, and Susan C. Cork 2021. "Identification, Distribution, and Habitat Suitability Models of Ixodid Tick Species in Cattle in Eastern Bhutan" Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 6, no. 1: 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6010027

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