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Intercepted Mosquitoes at New Zealand’s Ports of Entry, 2001 to 2018: Current Status and Future Concerns

1
Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
2
Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Queensland 4814, Australia
3
Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington 6011, New Zealand
4
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4030101
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract

Mosquito vectors are extending their range via international travel and trade. Climate change makes New Zealand an increasingly suitable environment for less tropically adapted exotic mosquito vectors to become established. This shift will add a multiplier effect to existing risks of both the establishment of new species and of resident exotic species extending into new areas. We describe trends in the border interceptions of exotic mosquitoes and evaluate the role of imported goods as a pathway for these introductions. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the two most commonly intercepted species, were only intercepted in Auckland. Used tyres and machinery were the main mode of entry for both species. The majority of Ae. albopictus were transported as larvae by sea, while most Ae. aegypti were transported as adults by air. Continuing introductions of these mosquitoes, mainly arriving via Japan or Australia, increase the risk of the local transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in New Zealand in general and in the Auckland region in particular. These findings reinforce the need for a high performing and adequately resourced national biosecurity system, particularly port surveillance and inspection. Recommended biosecurity improvements are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: mosquitoes; New Zealand; interception; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; used tyres; machinery; climate change; vector-borne diseases mosquitoes; New Zealand; interception; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; used tyres; machinery; climate change; vector-borne diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ammar, S.E.; Mclntyre, M.; Swan, T.; Kasper, J.; Derraik, J.G.B.; Baker, M.G.; Hales, S. Intercepted Mosquitoes at New Zealand’s Ports of Entry, 2001 to 2018: Current Status and Future Concerns. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 101.

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