Next Article in Journal
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Taking Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy in Sierra Leone
Next Article in Special Issue
Litomosoides sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) Infection in Frugivorous Bats (Artibeus spp.): Pathological Features, Molecular Evidence, and Prevalence
Previous Article in Journal
Elimination of Schistosomiasis Mekongi from Endemic Areas in Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Current Status and Plans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of a Rabies Virus Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Detection of Australian Bat Lyssavirus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Bats and Viruses: Emergence of Novel Lyssaviruses and Association of Bats with Viral Zoonoses in the EU

1
Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Weybridge-London KT15 3NB, UK
2
School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
3
APHA—National Wildlife Management Centre, Wildlife Epidemiology and Modelling, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
4
Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George’s Hospital Medical School, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK
5
Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010031
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Tropical Pathogens of Bats)
  |  
PDF [1423 KB, uploaded 26 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Bats in the EU have been associated with several zoonotic viral pathogens of significance to both human and animal health. Virus discovery continues to expand the existing understating of virus classification, and the increased interest in bats globally as reservoirs or carriers of zoonotic agents has fuelled the continued detection and characterisation of new lyssaviruses and other viral zoonoses. Although the transmission of lyssaviruses from bat species to humans or terrestrial species appears rare, interest in these viruses remains, through their ability to cause the invariably fatal encephalitis—rabies. The association of bats with other viral zoonoses is also of great interest. Much of the EU is free of terrestrial rabies, but several bat species harbor lyssaviruses that remain a risk to human and animal health. Whilst the rabies virus is the main cause of rabies globally, novel related viruses continue to be discovered, predominantly in bat populations, that are of interest purely through their classification within the lyssavirus genus alongside the rabies virus. Although the rabies virus is principally transmitted from the bite of infected dogs, these related lyssaviruses are primarily transmitted to humans and terrestrial carnivores by bats. Even though reports of zoonotic viruses from bats within the EU are rare, to protect human and animal health, it is important characterise novel bat viruses for several reasons, namely: (i) to investigate the mechanisms for the maintenance, potential routes of transmission, and resulting clinical signs, if any, in their natural hosts; (ii) to investigate the ability of existing vaccines, where available, to protect against these viruses; (iii) to evaluate the potential for spill over and onward transmission of viral pathogens in novel terrestrial hosts. This review is an update on the current situation regarding zoonotic virus discovery within bats in the EU, and provides details of potential future mechanisms to control the threat from these deadly pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies; lyssavirus; bats; emerging; novel; zoonoses rabies; lyssavirus; bats; emerging; novel; zoonoses
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shipley, R.; Wright, E.; Selden, D.; Wu, G.; Aegerter, J.; Fooks, A.R.; Banyard, A.C. Bats and Viruses: Emergence of Novel Lyssaviruses and Association of Bats with Viral Zoonoses in the EU. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 31.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top