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Article

User Monitoring in Autonomous Driving System Using Gamified Task: A Case for VR/AR In-Car Gaming

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
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School of Engineering, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Private Bag, Nyeri 10143, Kenya
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Industrial Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amon Rapp
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5(8), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5080040
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
Background: As Automated Driving Systems (ADS) technology gets assimilated into the market, the driver’s obligation will be changed to a supervisory role. A key point to consider is the driver’s engagement in the secondary task to maintain the driver/user in the control loop. This paper aims to monitor driver engagement with a game and identify any impacts the task has on hazard recognition. Methods: We designed a driving simulation using Unity3D and incorporated three tasks: No-task, AR-Video, and AR-Game tasks. The driver engaged in an AR object interception game while monitoring the road for threatening road scenarios. Results: There was a significant difference in the tasks (F(2,33) = 4.34, p = 0.0213), identifying the game-task as significant with respect to reaction time and ideal for the present investigation. Game scoring followed three profiles/phases: learning, saturation, and decline profile. From the profiles, it is possible to quantify/infer drivers’ engagement with the game task. Conclusion: The paper proposes alternative monitoring that has utility, i.e., entertaining the user. Further experiments with AR-Games focusing on the real-world car environment will be performed to confirm the performance following the recommendations derived from the current test. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous driving system; in-car gaming; driver behavior; driving-related tasks; 3D VR/AR autonomous driving system; in-car gaming; driver behavior; driving-related tasks; 3D VR/AR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muguro, J.K.; Laksono, P.W.; Sasatake, Y.; Matsushita, K.; Sasaki, M. User Monitoring in Autonomous Driving System Using Gamified Task: A Case for VR/AR In-Car Gaming. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5080040

AMA Style

Muguro JK, Laksono PW, Sasatake Y, Matsushita K, Sasaki M. User Monitoring in Autonomous Driving System Using Gamified Task: A Case for VR/AR In-Car Gaming. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2021; 5(8):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5080040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muguro, Joseph K., Pringgo W. Laksono, Yuta Sasatake, Kojiro Matsushita, and Minoru Sasaki. 2021. "User Monitoring in Autonomous Driving System Using Gamified Task: A Case for VR/AR In-Car Gaming" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5, no. 8: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5080040

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