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Open AccessArticle

It’s about Time: Effects of Physical Exertion on Duration Estimates

Springfield College, Department of Psychology, 263 Alden Street, Springfield, MA 01109 USA
Ukiah Unified School District, 740 North Spring Street, Ukiah, CA 95482, USA
Fielding Graduate University, 2020 De La Vina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105-3814, USA
Wuhan Sports University, College of Health Sciences, No. 461 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Massachusetts Youth Soccer, 512 Old Union Turnpike, Lancaster, MA 01523, USA
Armed Forces Services Corporation, 2800 Shirlington Road # 350, Arlington, VA 22206, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(1), 6;
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Psychology)
Background: Task duration is a fundamental aspect of exercise, but little is known about how completed bouts of physical activity are perceived. Consequently, the purpose of the five experiments conducted for this investigation was to examine the effects of engaging in physical tasks on retrospective duration estimates with college student participants. Methods: Across the five experiments, participants were 113 college students (82 women, 31 men). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants provided duration estimates of a period spent engaging in physical activity or rest. In Experiments 3, 4, and 5, participants provided duration estimates of periods spent engaged in physical tasks of high intensity and low intensity. Results: In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, participants engaged in physical activity tended to perceive durations as shorter than participants at rest. When completing less familiar tasks (Experiments 4 and 5), however, participants recalled a high intensity bout of physical activity as lasting longer than a low intensity bout of physical activity of comparable duration. Cohen’s d values for physical activity effects on duration estimates ranged from 0.40 to 1.60. Conclusion: The findings, which partially support a contextual-change interpretation, suggest that factors, such as perceived exertion and task familiarity, affect retrospective duration estimates. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; temporal judgments; time perception exercise; temporal judgments; time perception
MDPI and ACS Style

Brewer, B.W.; Schwartz, L.O., III; Cornelius, A.E.; Van Raalte, J.L.; Urbina, E.L.; Stubbs, J.S., III. It’s about Time: Effects of Physical Exertion on Duration Estimates. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4, 6.

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