Cancer is the second leading cause of death, and the most common diagnosis among the general population is breast and colon cancer. Recently, an increasing number of new cases of invasive breast and colon cancer have been estimated, and more people die from these diseases. In addition to the genetic pattern, diet and lifestyle including smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentary behaviour have also been identified as potential risks factors. Recent studies of cancer survivors have shown the beneficial effects of regular physical activity to reduce the prevalence of comorbidity, muscle atrophy, weight changes, reduced aerobic capacity, fatigue, depression, and reduced quality of life. Dedicated and individual programs are crucial for achieving the goals of improving quality of life and reducing comorbidities. A multidisciplinary approach is fundamental: lifestyle assessment, including estimating the level of physical activity, as well as nutritional habits, may be the first step. A periodic cardiovascular examination is crucial for detecting asymptomatic early myocardial failure. According to current ACSM guidelines, different levels of exercise (low-moderate 40% and moderate up to 60% of the maximal HR) may be prescribed, and patients enrolled may follow the exercise program if in the absence of contraindications. The current paper reports observations from our clinical practice and provides practical strategies that bridge contemporary, published guidelines into practice within a multi-disciplinary team working with cancer survivors in Italy.
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