Next Article in Journal
Boron Concentration Induced Co-Ta-B Composite Formation Observed in the Transition from Metallic to Covalent Glasses
Next Article in Special Issue
Classical and Quantum Signatures of Quantum Phase Transitions in a (Pseudo) Relativistic Many-Body System
Previous Article in Journal
Angular Dependence of Copper Surface Damage Induced by an Intense Coherent THz Radiation Beam
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dynamical Detection of Level Repulsion in the One-Particle Aubry-André Model
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Quantum-Heat Fluctuation Relations in Three-Level Systems Under Projective Measurements

1
SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy
2
INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste, Italy
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy & LENS, University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
4
Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste, Italy
5
CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy
6
Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Condens. Matter 2020, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat5010017
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 24 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Many Body Quantum Chaos)
We study the statistics of energy fluctuations in a three-level quantum system subject to a sequence of projective quantum measurements. We check that, as expected, the quantum Jarzynski equality holds provided that the initial state is thermal. The latter condition is trivially satisfied for two-level systems, while this is generally no longer true for N-level systems, with N > 2 . Focusing on three-level systems, we discuss the occurrence of a unique energy scale factor β eff that formally plays the role of an effective inverse temperature in the Jarzynski equality. To this aim, we introduce a suitable parametrization of the initial state in terms of a thermal and a non-thermal component. We determine the value of β eff for a large number of measurements and study its dependence on the initial state. Our predictions could be checked experimentally in quantum optics. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluctuation theorems; nonequilibrium statistical mechanics; quantum thermodynamics fluctuation theorems; nonequilibrium statistical mechanics; quantum thermodynamics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Giachetti, G.; Gherardini, S.; Trombettoni, A.; Ruffo, S. Quantum-Heat Fluctuation Relations in Three-Level Systems Under Projective Measurements. Condens. Matter 2020, 5, 17.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop