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Review

Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models to Study Respiratory Virus Infections Including COVID-19

1
Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 11-0236, Lebanon
2
Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 11-0236, Lebanon
3
Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 11-0236, Lebanon
4
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut 11-5020, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Josep Samitier and Stanislav N. Gorb
Biomimetics 2022, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010003
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 16 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 25 December 2021
Respiratory viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are among the most common illnesses and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the severe effects on health, the need of new tools to study the pathogenesis of respiratory viruses as well as to test for new antiviral drugs and vaccines is urgent. In vitro culture model systems, such as three-dimensional (3D) cultures, are emerging as a desirable approach to understand the virus host interactions and to identify novel therapeutic agents. In the first part of the article, we address the various scaffold-free and scaffold-based 3D culture models such as hydrogels, bioreactors, spheroids and 3D bioprinting as well as present their properties and advantages over conventional 2D methods. Then, we review the 3D models that have been used to study the most common respiratory viruses including influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and coronaviruses. Herein, we also explain how 3D models have been applied to understand the novel SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and to develop potential therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D culture models; spheroids; respiratory viruses; coronaviruses; COVID-19 3D culture models; spheroids; respiratory viruses; coronaviruses; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harb, A.; Fakhreddine, M.; Zaraket, H.; Saleh, F.A. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models to Study Respiratory Virus Infections Including COVID-19. Biomimetics 2022, 7, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010003

AMA Style

Harb A, Fakhreddine M, Zaraket H, Saleh FA. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models to Study Respiratory Virus Infections Including COVID-19. Biomimetics. 2022; 7(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harb, Aya, Mohammad Fakhreddine, Hassan Zaraket, and Fatima A. Saleh. 2022. "Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models to Study Respiratory Virus Infections Including COVID-19" Biomimetics 7, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010003

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