‘Extreme biomimetics’ and ‘geomimetics’ are relatively recent fields of materials chemistry. Both take inspiration from natural materials for generating novel synthetic materials or enhanced properties in known materials. In geomimetics, the source of inspiration is geological systems, while extreme biomimetics is motivated by organisms operating in—from an anthropocentric point of view—extreme conditions. This review article focuses on geomimetic and extreme biomimetic hydrothermal synthesis. Since hydrothermal preparative chemistry typically uses nothing but water and the required precursors, the field belongs to the research area of ‘green materials chemistry’. Geomimetics, on the one hand, takes inspiration from natural materials formation. Extreme Biomimetics, on the other hand, is inspired by materials found in extremophile organisms, instead of aiming to implement their actual biosynthesis. In this contribution, both extreme biomimetics and geomimetics are first defined, and further critically discussed on the basis of recent, selected examples. Moreover, the necessity for the two closely related fields as well their prospects are commented on.
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