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Article

A Spectral Filter Array Camera for Clinical Monitoring and Diagnosis: Proof of Concept for Skin Oxygenation Imaging

1
The Norwegian Colour and Visual Computing Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2815 Gjøvik, Norway
2
Department of Anesthesiology, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Biomedical Photonics and Imaging Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Imaging 2019, 5(8), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5080066
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
The emerging technology of spectral filter array (SFA) cameras has great potential for clinical applications, due to its unique capability for real time spectral imaging, at a reasonable cost. This makes such cameras particularly suitable for quantification of dynamic processes such as skin oxygenation. Skin oxygenation measurements are useful for burn wound healing assessment and as an indicator of patient complications in the operating room. Due to their unique design, in which all pixels of the image sensor are equipped with different optical filters, SFA cameras require specific image processing steps to obtain meaningful high quality spectral image data. These steps include spatial rearrangement, SFA interpolations and spectral correction. In this paper the feasibility of a commercially available SFA camera for clinical applications is tested. A suitable general image processing pipeline is proposed. As a ’proof of concept’ a complete system for spatial dynamic skin oxygenation measurements is developed and evaluated. In a study including 58 volunteers, oxygenation changes during upper arm occlusion were measured with the proposed SFA system and compared with a validated clinical device for localized oxygenation measurements. The comparison of the clinical standard measurements and SFA results show a good correlation for the relative oxygenation changes. This proposed processing pipeline for SFA cameras shows to be effective for relative oxygenation change imaging. It can be implemented in real time and developed further for absolute spatial oxygenation measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: spectral filter array; multi-spectral imaging; skin; bio-medical optics; occlusion measurement; reflectance spectroscopy; oxygenation; Xispec spectral filter array; multi-spectral imaging; skin; bio-medical optics; occlusion measurement; reflectance spectroscopy; oxygenation; Xispec
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bauer, J.R.; Bruins, A.A.; Hardeberg, J.Y.; Verdaasdonk, R.M. A Spectral Filter Array Camera for Clinical Monitoring and Diagnosis: Proof of Concept for Skin Oxygenation Imaging. J. Imaging 2019, 5, 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5080066

AMA Style

Bauer JR, Bruins AA, Hardeberg JY, Verdaasdonk RM. A Spectral Filter Array Camera for Clinical Monitoring and Diagnosis: Proof of Concept for Skin Oxygenation Imaging. Journal of Imaging. 2019; 5(8):66. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5080066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bauer, Jacob R., Arnoud A. Bruins, Jon Y. Hardeberg, and Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk 2019. "A Spectral Filter Array Camera for Clinical Monitoring and Diagnosis: Proof of Concept for Skin Oxygenation Imaging" Journal of Imaging 5, no. 8: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5080066

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