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Open AccessArticle

Novel Stopping Criteria for Optimization-Based Microwave Breast Imaging Algorithms

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
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J. Imaging 2019, 5(5), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5050055
Received: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Imaging and Electromagnetic Inverse Scattering Problems)
A discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the Contrast Source Inversion algorithm (DGM-CSI) for microwave breast imaging employing a frequency-cycling reconstruction technique has been modified here to include a set of automated stopping criteria that determine a suitable time to shift imaging frequencies and to globally terminate the reconstruction. Recent studies have explored the use of tissue-dependent geometrical mapping of the well-reconstructed real part to its imaginary part as initial guesses during consecutive frequency hops. This practice was shown to improve resulting 2D images of the dielectric properties of synthetic breast models, but a fixed number of iterations was used to halt DGM-CSI inversions arbitrarily. Herein, a new set of stopping conditions is introduced based on an intelligent statistical analysis of a window of past iterations of data error using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. This non-parametric goodness-of-fit test establishes a pattern in the data error distribution, indicating an appropriate time to shift frequencies, or terminate the algorithm. The proposed stopping criteria are shown to improve the efficiency of DGM-CSI while yielding images of equivalent quality to assigning an often liberally overestimated number of iterations per reconstruction. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast imaging; microwave imaging; discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM); contrast source inversion (CSI); stopping criteria; Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test breast imaging; microwave imaging; discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM); contrast source inversion (CSI); stopping criteria; Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaye, C.; Jeffrey, I.; LoVetri, J. Novel Stopping Criteria for Optimization-Based Microwave Breast Imaging Algorithms. J. Imaging 2019, 5, 55.

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