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ECG Electrode Placements for Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage Suppression

College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Imaging 2018, 4(7), 94;
Received: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
This study aims to investigate a set of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode lead locations to improve the quality of four-lead ECG signals acquired during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This was achieved by identifying electrode placements that minimized the amount of induced magnetohydrodynamic voltages (VMHD) in the ECG signals. Reducing VMHD can improve the accuracy of QRS complex detection in ECG as well as heartbeat synchronization between MRI and ECG during the acquisition of cardiac cine. A vector model based on thoracic geometry was developed to predict induced VMHD and to optimize four-lead ECG electrode placement for the purposes of improved MRI gating. Four human subjects were recruited for vector model establishment (Group 1), and five human subjects were recruited for validation of VMHD reduction in the proposed four-lead ECG (Group 2). The vector model was established using 12-lead ECG data recorded from Group 1 of four healthy subjects at 3 Tesla, and a gradient descent optimization routine was utilized to predict optimal four-lead ECG placement based on VMHD vector alignment. The optimized four-lead ECG was then validated in Group 2 of five healthy subjects by comparing the standard and proposed lead placements. A 43.41% reduction in VMHD was observed in ECGs using the proposed electrode placement, and the QRS complex was preserved. A VMHD-minimized electrode placement for four-lead ECG gating was presented and shown to reduce induced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) signals, potentially allowing for improved cardiac MRI physiological monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocardiogram; magnetohydrodynamics; electrode placement; cardiac; MRI electrocardiogram; magnetohydrodynamics; electrode placement; cardiac; MRI
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gregory, T.S.; Oshinski, J.N.; Tse, Z.T.H. ECG Electrode Placements for Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage Suppression. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 94.

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