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Batteries 2018, 4(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040060

A High Capacity, Room Temperature, Hybrid Flow Battery Consisting of Liquid Na-Cs Anode and Aqueous NaI Catholyte

Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
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Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Material Design and Development for Redox Flow Batteries)
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Abstract

In this study, we have proposed a novel concept of hybrid flow batteries consisting of a molten Na-Cs anode and an aqueous NaI catholyte separated by a NaSICON membrane. A number of carbonaceous electrodes are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for their potentials as the positive electrode of the aqueous NaI catholyte. The charge transfer impedance, interfacial impedance and NaSICON membrane impedance of the Na-Cs ‖ NaI hybrid flow battery are analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of the Na-Cs ‖ NaI hybrid flow battery is evaluated through galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of the Na-Cs ‖ NaI hybrid flow battery and shows that the Na-Cs ‖ NaI hybrid flow battery has the potential to achieve the following properties simultaneously: (i) An aqueous NaI catholyte with good cycle stability, (ii) a durable and low impedance NaSICON membrane for a large number of cycles, (iii) stable interfaces at both anode/membrane and cathode/membrane interfaces, (iv) a molten Na-Cs anode capable of repeated Na plating and stripping, and (v) a flow battery with high Coulombic efficiency, high voltaic efficiency, and high energy efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: redox flow batteries; hybrid flow batteries; Na-based anolyte; NaI aqueous catholyte redox flow batteries; hybrid flow batteries; Na-based anolyte; NaI aqueous catholyte
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, C.; Shaw, L. A High Capacity, Room Temperature, Hybrid Flow Battery Consisting of Liquid Na-Cs Anode and Aqueous NaI Catholyte. Batteries 2018, 4, 60.

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