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Batteries 2018, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040058

Verification of Redox Flow Batteries’ Functionality by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests

1
Volterion GmbH, Carlo-Schmid-Allee 3, D-44263 Dortmund, Germany
2
German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Institute of Energy Storage, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vanadium Redox Flow Battery and Its Applications)
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Abstract

The state-of-the-art functionality test of classic redox-flow-stacks measures the current–voltage characteristic with the technical electrolyte. This research paper aims to simplify the validation of redox flow batteries’ functionality by conducting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on redox flow stacks. Since the electrolyte used in the batteries is usually toxic and aggressive, it would be a significant simplification to verify the functionality with an alternative, non-toxic fluid. EIS measurements on batteries with larger sized electrodes, multiple cells, and different fluids were performed. It was demonstrated that all impedances are repeatable, thereby validating this procedure as a qualification method for full-size and complex batteries with an alternative fluid. EIS measurements were able to detect deliberately manipulated cells. This research uses three different analysis methods for the acquired data to identify errors. The respective approaches are, firstly, (1) a comparison of the Nyquist plots; secondly, (2) a comparison of the Bode plots; and thirdly, (3) a comparison of the calculated characteristic values of the equivalent circuits. The analysis found that all methods are suitable to detect errors in the batteries. Nevertheless, the bode-plot comparison method proves to be especially advantageous, because it enables a quantitative statement. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vanadium-Redox-flow battery; quality control; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Vanadium-Redox-flow battery; quality control; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Manschke, D.; Seipp, T.; Berthold, S.; Friedrich, K.A. Verification of Redox Flow Batteries’ Functionality by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests. Batteries 2018, 4, 58.

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