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Batteries 2018, 4(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040049

Accelerated Internal Resistance Measurements of Lithium-Ion Cells to Support Future End-of-Life Strategies for Electric Vehicles

Energy and Electrical Systems, WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
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Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract

Industrial and academic communities have embarked on investigating the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage systems. Circular economy strategies for electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery systems are underpinned by implicit assumptions about the state of health (SOH) of the battery. The internal resistance of battery systems is the essential property for determining available power, energy efficiency, and heat generation. Consequently, precise measurement is crucial to estimate the SOH; however, the international standards and best practice guides that exist to define the measurements include long preconditioning and rest times that make the test duration prohibitive. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate whether test duration times for internal resistance measurements can be reduced to values that may facilitate further end-of-life (EOL) options. Results reveal a newly developed technique using pulse-multisines is two to four times faster to perform when compared to the standard protocol whilst maintaining accuracy for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and HEV cells, respectively. This novel method allows different stakeholders to rank the relative importance of test accuracy verses experimental test time when categorising used Li-ion cells for different EOL applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium ion battery; energy internal resistance measurement; internal resistance; accelerated system identification; end-of-life; circular economy lithium ion battery; energy internal resistance measurement; internal resistance; accelerated system identification; end-of-life; circular economy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Grandjean, T.R.B.; Groenewald, J.; McGordon, A.; Widanage, W.D.; Marco, J. Accelerated Internal Resistance Measurements of Lithium-Ion Cells to Support Future End-of-Life Strategies for Electric Vehicles. Batteries 2018, 4, 49.

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