Despite the possession of arable land, Malagasy farmers do not have sufficient access to capital and equipment and invest little to improve their low agricultural productivity in Madagascar. Vermicomposting is the result of research on the culture of earthworms to overcome problems with fertilization and provide benefits to farmers, including improvement in crop performance and yield, and preservation of the environment. Each farmer can practice vermicomposting because of its simple technology. Our concern has been how to develop the production and use of vermicompost at the household level in rural areas in order to solve problems of soil fertility, improve agricultural productivity, and increase farmers' incomes with this organic technique. Thus, the objective of this research was to propose a model for the development of production and use of vermicompost in rural areas in order to minimize the costs of agricultural inputs, improve soil fertility and increase long-term household incomes. A typology of operators was carried out according to defined factors of production and activities performed, followed by a socio-economic analysis and a comparative analysis based on the types obtained. It will be essential to clearly define a national policy on organic farming by supporting private sector groups, NGOs or associations, and encouraging farmers to produce their own fertilizer. Technical and financial support will be needed for the development of concrete visual references which can demonstrate the technical and economic value that organic farming brings using vermicompost.
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