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Article

Diversity of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Olive Anthracnose Worldwide

1
Departamento de Agronomía (DAUCO María de Maeztu Unit of Excellence 2021–2023), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, Edif. C4, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
2
Laboratory of Improvement and Protection of Olive Genetic Resources, Olive Tree Institute, BP 208 Cité Mahrajene, Tunis 1082, Tunisia
3
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
4
School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith 2747, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Academic Editor: Lei Cai
J. Fungi 2021, 7(9), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090741
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 6 September 2021 / Published: 9 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biodiversity and Ecology 2.0)
Olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species causes dramatic losses of fruit yield and oil quality worldwide. A total of 185 Colletotrichum isolates obtained from olives and other hosts showing anthracnose symptoms in Spain and other olive-growing countries over the world were characterized. Colony and conidial morphology, benomyl-sensitive, and casein-hydrolysis activity were recorded. Multilocus alignments of ITS, TUB2, ACT, CHS-1, HIS3, and/or GAPDH were conducted for their molecular identification. The pathogenicity of the most representative Colletotrichum species was tested to olive fruits and to other hosts, such as almonds, apples, oleander, sweet oranges, and strawberries. In general, the phenotypic characters recorded were not useful to identify all species, although they allowed the separation of some species or species complexes. ITS and TUB2 were enough to infer Colletotrichum species within C. acutatum and C. boninense complexes, whereas ITS, TUB2, ACT, CHS-1, HIS-3, and GADPH regions were necessary to discriminate within the C. gloesporioides complex. Twelve Colletotrichum species belonging to C. acutatum, C. boninense, and C. gloeosporioides complexes were identified, with C. godetiae being dominant in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Tunisia, C. nymphaeae in Portugal, and C. fioriniae in California. The highest diversity with eight Colletotrichum spp. was found in Australia. Significant differences in virulence to olives were observed between isolates depending on the Colletotrichum species and host origin. When other hosts were inoculated, most of the Colletotrichum isolates tested were pathogenic in all the hosts evaluated, except for C. siamense to apple and sweet orange fruits, and C. godetiae to oleander leaves. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthracnose; Colletotrichum spp.; diversity; Olea europaea; pathogenicity; phenotype; phylogenetic analysis anthracnose; Colletotrichum spp.; diversity; Olea europaea; pathogenicity; phenotype; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moral, J.; Agustí-Brisach, C.; Raya, M.C.; Jurado-Bello, J.; López-Moral, A.; Roca, L.F.; Chattaoui, M.; Rhouma, A.; Nigro, F.; Sergeeva, V.; Trapero, A. Diversity of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Olive Anthracnose Worldwide. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090741

AMA Style

Moral J, Agustí-Brisach C, Raya MC, Jurado-Bello J, López-Moral A, Roca LF, Chattaoui M, Rhouma A, Nigro F, Sergeeva V, Trapero A. Diversity of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Olive Anthracnose Worldwide. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(9):741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moral, Juan, Carlos Agustí-Brisach, Maria C. Raya, José Jurado-Bello, Ana López-Moral, Luis F. Roca, Mayssa Chattaoui, Ali Rhouma, Franco Nigro, Vera Sergeeva, and Antonio Trapero. 2021. "Diversity of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Olive Anthracnose Worldwide" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 9: 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090741

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