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Review

Paracoccidioidomycosis Diagnosed in Europe—A Systematic Literature Review

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Department for Evidence-Based Medicine and Evaluation, Danube University Krems, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Strasse 30, 3500 Krems, Austria
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Clinical Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital St. Poelten, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Dunant-Platz 1, 3100 St. Poelten, Austria
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Department for Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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RTI International, 3040 East Cornwallis Road, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2021, 7(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020157
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis that is endemic in geographical regions of Central and South America. Cases that occur in nonendemic regions of the world are imported through migration and travel. Due to the limited number of cases in Europe, most physicians are not familiar with paracoccidioidomycosis and its close clinical and histopathological resemblance to other infectious and noninfectious disease. To increase awareness of this insidious mycosis, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on cases diagnosed and reported in Europe. We searched PubMed and Embase to identify cases of paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosed in European countries. In addition, we used Scopus for citation tracking and manually screened bibliographies of relevant articles. We conducted dual abstract and full-text screening of references yielded by our searches. To identify publications published prior to 1985, we used the previously published review by Ajello et al. Overall, we identified 83 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosed in 11 European countries, published in 68 articles. Age of patients ranged from 24 to 77 years; the majority were male. Time from leaving the endemic region and first occurrence of symptoms considerably varied. Our review illustrates the challenges of considering systemic mycosis in the differential diagnosis of people returning or immigrating to Europe from endemic areas. Travel history is important for diagnostic-workup, though it might be difficult to obtain due to possible long latency period of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: paracoccidioidomycosis; Paracoccidioides spp.; endemic systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis; Paracoccidioides spp.; endemic systemic mycosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wagner, G.; Moertl, D.; Glechner, A.; Mayr, V.; Klerings, I.; Zachariah, C.; Van den Nest, M.; Gartlehner, G.; Willinger, B. Paracoccidioidomycosis Diagnosed in Europe—A Systematic Literature Review. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020157

AMA Style

Wagner G, Moertl D, Glechner A, Mayr V, Klerings I, Zachariah C, Van den Nest M, Gartlehner G, Willinger B. Paracoccidioidomycosis Diagnosed in Europe—A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(2):157. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020157

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wagner, Gernot, Deddo Moertl, Anna Glechner, Verena Mayr, Irma Klerings, Casey Zachariah, Miriam Van den Nest, Gerald Gartlehner, and Birgit Willinger. 2021. "Paracoccidioidomycosis Diagnosed in Europe—A Systematic Literature Review" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 2: 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020157

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