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Advances against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis
Article

Dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea Spores by Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

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Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre CAS, Branišovská 1160/31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Faulty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Studentská 1668, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Arthropod Ecology and Biological Control Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre CAS, Branišovská 1160/31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040359
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
Entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi are globally distributed soil organisms that are frequently used as bioagents in biological control and integrated pest management. Many studies have demonstrated that the combination of biocontrol agents can increase their efficacy against target hosts. In our study, we focused on another potential benefit of the synergy of two species of nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and the fungus Isaria fumosorosea. According to our hypothesis, these nematodes may be able to disseminate this fungus into the environment. To test this hypothesis, we studied fungal dispersal by the nematodes in different arenas, including potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates, sand heaps, sand barriers, and glass tubes filled with soil. The results of our study showed, for the first time, that the spreading of both conidia and blastospores of I. fumosorosea is significantly enhanced by the presence of entomopathogenic nematodes, but the efficacy of dissemination is negatively influenced by the heterogeneity of the testing arena. We also found that H. bacteriophora spread fungi more effectively than S. feltiae. This phenomenon could be explained by the differences in the presence and persistence of second-stage cuticles or by different foraging behavior. Finally, we observed that blastospores are disseminated more effectively than conidia, which might be due to the different adherence of these spores (conidia are hydrophobic, while blastospores are hydrophilic). The obtained results showed that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can enhance the efficiency of fungal dispersal. View Full-Text
Keywords: entomopathogenic nematodes; entomopathogenic fungi; conidia; blastospores; dispersal; PDA plates; soil substrate entomopathogenic nematodes; entomopathogenic fungi; conidia; blastospores; dispersal; PDA plates; soil substrate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nermuť, J.; Konopická, J.; Zemek, R.; Kopačka, M.; Bohatá, A.; Půža, V. Dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea Spores by Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040359

AMA Style

Nermuť J, Konopická J, Zemek R, Kopačka M, Bohatá A, Půža V. Dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea Spores by Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4):359. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040359

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nermuť, Jiří, Jana Konopická, Rostislav Zemek, Michal Kopačka, Andrea Bohatá, and Vladimír Půža. 2020. "Dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea Spores by Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora" Journal of Fungi 6, no. 4: 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040359

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