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The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Cameroon

Department of Internal Medicine (Dermatology), Université des Montagnes, Bangangté P.O. Box 208, Cameroon (Central Africa)
National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital and The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 44;
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
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Fungal infections are frequent in Cameroon, and invasive fungal infections are sometimes detected, usually in HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, we have estimated the burden of fungal infections. Using published literature and population estimates for the at-risk group, we used deterministic modelling to derive national incidence and prevalence estimates for the most serious fungal diseases. HIV infection is common and an estimated 120,000 have CD4 counts <200 × 106/mL and commonly present with opportunistic infection. Oesophageal candidiasis in HIV is common, and in poorly controlled diabetics. We estimate 6720 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 9000 of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 1800 of disseminated histoplasmosis annually complicating AIDS, and 1200 deaths from invasive aspergillosis in AIDS, but there are no data. We found that 2.4% of adults have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 2.65% have asthma, with “fungal asthma” affecting 20,000. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects about 5000 people, predominantly after tuberculosis but also with COPD and other lung diseases. Also, tinea capitis in schoolchildren is frequent. Overall, an estimated 1,236,332 people are affected by a serious fungal infection. There is an urgent need for government and clinician attention, improved laboratory facilities, fungal diagnostic tests, and competent laboratory technicians, as well as all World Health Organization (WHO)-endorsed essential antifungal drugs to be made available, as only fluconazole is registered and available in the country. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; fungal infections; pulmonary infections; opportunistic infections; Cameroon HIV/AIDS; fungal infections; pulmonary infections; opportunistic infections; Cameroon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mandengue, C.E.; Denning, D.W. The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Cameroon. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 44.

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