has emerged as a significant pathogen in immunocompromised patients. While the diagnostic testing and the antifungal treatment of cryptococcal infections have become firmly established in clinical practice, new developments and areas of ambiguity merit further consideration. These include the potential for donor transmission of Cryptococcus
; cirrhosis-associated cryptococcosis, particularly during transplant candidacy; the utility of serum cryptococcal antigen testing of asymptomatic individuals in high-prevalence, poor-resource areas; pathogenesis and treatment of the immune reconstitution syndrome, specifically in relation to antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive medications; and new challenges posed by the emerging species of Cryptococcus gatti
. In this article, we summarize the literature pertaining to these topics, focusing on recent progress.
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