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Planning for a Nondriving Future: Behaviors and Beliefs among Middle-Aged and Older Drivers

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC), St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Department of Sociology and Gerontology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
Department of Health Behavior & Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geriatrics 2018, 3(2), 19;
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving)
PDF [241 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Despite the reality of older adults living many years after driving cessation, few prepare for the eventuality; empirically, planning for a nondriving future has not been directly quantified or explored. The following study quantifies (1) the extent of current drivers’ planning; (2) specific planning behaviors; (3) beliefs about benefits of planning; (4) drivers’ intention to plan more for future transportation needs; and (5) group differences associated with planning. In a predominantly female, black, urban sample of current drivers ages 53–92, fewer than half (42.1%) had planned at all for a nondriving future, with correspondingly low levels of planning behaviors reported. However, over 80% believed planning would help them meet their needs post-cessation and transition emotionally to being a nondriver. Most (85%) intended to plan more in the future as well, indicating further potential openness to the topic. Drivers who planned were older, drove less frequently, limited their driving to nearby places, reported less difficulty believing they would become a nondriver, and expected to continue driving three years less than non-planners. These findings suggest that drivers’ perceived nearness to driving cessation impacts planning for future transportation needs, and existing perceived benefits of planning may provide leverage to motivate action. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging drivers; driving cessation; mobility planning aging drivers; driving cessation; mobility planning
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Harmon, A.C.; Babulal, G.M.; Vivoda, J.M.; Zikmund-Fisher, B.J.; Carr, D.B. Planning for a Nondriving Future: Behaviors and Beliefs among Middle-Aged and Older Drivers. Geriatrics 2018, 3, 19.

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