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Article

Extending In-Plane Impedance Measurements from 2D to 3D Cultures: Design Considerations

1
Bioengineering Research Group, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
3
PXL University College, Hasselt University, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Bioengineering 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010011
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 13 January 2021
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently emerged as tools for biologically modelling the human body. As 3D models make their way into laboratories there is a need to develop characterisation techniques that are sensitive enough to monitor the cells in real time and without the need for chemical labels. Impedance spectroscopy has been shown to address both of these challenges, but there has been little research into the full impedance spectrum and how the different components of the system affect the impedance signal. Here we investigate the impedance of human fibroblast cells in 2D and 3D collagen gel cultures across a broad range of frequencies (10 Hz to 5 MHz) using a commercial well with in-plane electrodes. At low frequencies in both 2D and 3D models it was observed that protein adsorption influences the magnitude of the impedance for the cell-free samples. This effect was eliminated once cells were introduced to the systems. Cell proliferation could be monitored in 2D at intermediate frequencies (30 kHz). However, the in-plane electrodes were unable to detect any changes in the impedance at any frequency when the cells were cultured in the 3D collagen gel. The results suggest that in designing impedance measurement devices, both the nature and distribution of the cells within the 3D culture as well as the architecture of the electrodes are key variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D cell culture; electrical impedance spectroscopy; in situ monitoring; cell proliferation; tissue culture 3D cell culture; electrical impedance spectroscopy; in situ monitoring; cell proliferation; tissue culture
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Leon, S.E.; Cleuren, L.; Oo, Z.Y.; Stoddart, P.R.; McArthur, S.L. Extending In-Plane Impedance Measurements from 2D to 3D Cultures: Design Considerations. Bioengineering 2021, 8, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010011

AMA Style

De Leon SE, Cleuren L, Oo ZY, Stoddart PR, McArthur SL. Extending In-Plane Impedance Measurements from 2D to 3D Cultures: Design Considerations. Bioengineering. 2021; 8(1):11. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010011

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Leon, Sorel E., Lana Cleuren, Zay Y. Oo, Paul R. Stoddart, and Sally L. McArthur. 2021. "Extending In-Plane Impedance Measurements from 2D to 3D Cultures: Design Considerations" Bioengineering 8, no. 1: 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010011

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