|-||Murine LD muscle (50% defect).||Cells seeded in Bladder acellular matrix (BAM) scaffolds.||Histological and immunohistochemical analysis shows ADSCs could create regenerated muscle comparable to MPCs seeded scaffolds, but mainly through participation in vascularization.|||
|Human UC-MSCs||-||Rat TA muscle (20% defect).||Placing cells in aggregate in the muscle defect with and without decellularized porcine heart ECM powder.||
Histological analysis and mechanical function evaluation show MSCs and decellularized ECM have a synergistic effect on promoting skeletal muscle regeneration.
|Combination of MuSCs, ECs, FAPs, hematopoietic cells, fibroblast like cells||Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measurements demonstrated viability was significantly enhanced in the presence of support cells. Ex vivo force measurement shows force recovery reaches up to 90% of the uninjured muscle.||Murine TA muscle (40% defect).||Decellularized murine TA ECM-based hydrogel.||The combination of cells with scaffolds could generate functional vascularized muscle tissue in VML models; however, innervation and muscle force are not sufficient, yet could be enhanced by exercise.|||
|Human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs) ||Printed 3D cell constructs demonstrate high cell viability (>90%), differentiation, myotube formation and contractility.||Rat TA muscle (40% defect)|| Cell-laden muscle decellularized ECM (mdECM) bioink.||
Pre-vascularized 3D cell printed muscle constructs improve muscle regeneration, vascularization and innervation, as well as 85% of functional recovery.
|ASCs||ASCs proliferate and align on fibers with acceptable cell viability, but do not fully express myotube characterization and myogenesis fails after 2 months in vitro.||Murine TA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) removal.||Cells-seeded electrospun fibrin scaffold.||ASCs combined with electrospun fibrin microfibers demonstrate more tissue regeneration in vivo compared with acellular fibers, but limited expression of myogenic markers in ASCs is observed. |||
|Human MPCs||-||Murine TA muscle.||Poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) 3D scaffold.||Scaffolds increase the viability of cells in vivo and regeneration of muscle is enhanced following 1 and 4 week implantation compared to direct cell injection.|||
|Rat Bone-marrow MSCs||-||Rat biceps femoris resection size: 8 × 4 × 4 mm3.||Fibrin-based microbeads.||Fibrin microbeads with and without MSCs accelerate muscle regeneration and prevent scar formation; MSCs shorten the regeneration period. Sham group has in incomplete repair and fibrotic scar formation.|||
|Rat ASCs ||-||Rat TA muscle|
resection size: 10 × 5 × 3 mm3.
|Type I hydrogel.||ASCs encapsulated in hydrogel reduced inflammation and collagen deposition and accelerated muscle regeneration and angiogenesis compared with the hydrogel group.|||
|Human ASCs||Viability and growth of ASCs on electrospun fibers were assessed by Live/Dead and PicoGreen assays for up to 21 days. After 2 months in culture, both induced and uninduced ASCs formed elongated and aligned fibers on electrospun fibers and expressed high levels of desmin, but they expressed low and non-nuclear|
Myogenin and could not fully recapitulate myotube formation.
TA and EDL muscles from the anterior tibial compartment in immunodeficient mice.
|Electrospun fibrin hydrogel microfiber bundles.||ASC-seeded fibers exhibited up to four times higher volume retention than acellular fibers and lower levels of fibrosis. Unlike acellular scaffolds, ASC-seeded scaffolds showed mature muscle cells. |||
|Human amniotic MSCs||Results of Live/Dead test and immunofluorescence staining of desmin and MyoD|
showed that the cell viability and induction of the myogenic
differentiation of hAMCs by 5-Aza was not affected by GelMA gel.
|Sprague Dawley (SD) rats|
5 mm diameter muscle defect in TA muscle using a hole punch.
|GelMA gel.||Results showed 5-Aza induced cells in GelMA reduced the scar formation and increased the vascularization 2 weeks and 4 weeks post-implantation compared to blank and GelMA groups.|||
(MVF) construct with myoblasts (MVF + Myoblasts)
|Live/Dead assay demonstrates high viability of microvessels and seeded myoblasts and|
immunofluorescent staining shows
microvessel networks increase more in
MVF-Myoblast constructs than in MVF-only constructs.
biopsy punch in biceps femoris muscle of
Sprague Dawley rats.
|Collagen hydrogel.||MVF-Myoblast constructs did not show muscle regeneration at both 2 weeks and 8 weeks post-implantation.|||
|Rat MPCs|| ||Adult female Lewis rats|
20% TA muscle.
|Keratin hydrogel.|| |||
|Mouse MPCs|| ||Female C57/BL6 Mouse 50% LD muscle.||Keratin hydrogel.|| |||
|Newborn mice MuSCs||-||Three month old immunodeficient NSG mice|
TA muscle 4 × 2 × 2 mm3 partial thickness wedge resection.
Transplanted MuSCs in fibrin contribute to forming new fibers and new vessels and increase muscle mass as well as reduce fibrotic response.
|Human MPCs and|
human microvascular endothelial cells
|Human MPCs expressed Pax7 protein and were aligned along the direction of the scaffold nanofibers.||20% TA muscle ablation in NOD SCID male mice.||Nanofibrillar collagen scaffold.||Vascular perfusion and donor-derived human myofiber density increased in endothelialized human skeletal muscle formed from aligned scaffolds compared to randomly-oriented scaffolds.|||