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Open AccessArticle

3D Printing High-Consistency Enzymatic Nanocellulose Obtained from a Soda-Ethanol-O2 Pine Sawdust Pulp

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VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
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Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Félix de Azara 1552, 3300 Posadas, Misiones, Argentina
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RISE PFI, Høgskoleringen 6b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Bioengineering 2019, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6030060
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocomposite Inks for 3D Printing)
Soda-ethanol pulps, prepared from a forestry residue pine sawdust, were treated according to high-consistency enzymatic fibrillation technology to manufacture nanocellulose. The obtained nanocellulose was characterized and used as ink for three-dimensional (3D) printing of various structures. It was also tested for its moisture sorption capacity and cytotoxicity, as preliminary tests for evaluating its suitability for wound dressing and similar applications. During the high-consistency enzymatic treatment it was found that only the treatment of the O2-delignified pine pulp resulted in fibrillation into nano-scale. For 3D printing trials, the material needed to be fluidized further. By 3D printing, it was possible to fabricate various structures from the high-consistency enzymatic nanocellulose. However, the water sorption capacity of the structures was lower than previously seen with porous nanocellulose structures, indicating that further optimization of the material is needed. The material was found not to be cytotoxic, thus showing potential as material, e.g., for wound dressings and for printing tissue models. View Full-Text
Keywords: pine sawdust; soda ethanol pulping; nanocellulose; 3D printing; cytotoxicity pine sawdust; soda ethanol pulping; nanocellulose; 3D printing; cytotoxicity
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Kangas, H.; Felissia, F.E.; Filgueira, D.; Ehman, N.V.; Vallejos, M.E.; Imlauer, C.M.; Lahtinen, P.; Area, M.C.; Chinga-Carrasco, G. 3D Printing High-Consistency Enzymatic Nanocellulose Obtained from a Soda-Ethanol-O2 Pine Sawdust Pulp. Bioengineering 2019, 6, 60.

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