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Nanocomposites of Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Embedded in Thermosetting Polymer Matrices (Novolac Resin/Unsaturated Polyesters/Epoxy Resin): A Comparative Study

1
School of Chemical Engineering, Section III “Materials Science and Engineering”, Laboratory Unit “Advanced and Composite Materials”, 9-Heroon Polytechniou str., Zografou Campus, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens, Greece
2
Smart Materials & Nanodielectrics Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, 26505 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3010012
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles and Their Application in Catalysis)
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Abstract

Polymer matrix nanocomposites with embedded ferroelectric barium titanate particles were developed and characterized. The utility of such nanocomposites is the energy storage capability that they exhibit, besides their low weight and cost, in comparison to materials that are customarily used for this purpose. The polymers that have been used as matrices in the composites belong to the three most usable thermosetting polymer resins (novolacs, unsaturated polyesters, and epoxy resins), were either laboratory synthesized or commercially supplied. Structure and morphology of the produced composite specimens were studied via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal, mechanical and electrical performance was examined via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), bending and shear strength tests (three-point method), and Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS), respectively. Mechanical shear and bending strength values were determined, as well as mechanical failure mode (brittle or elastomer) were estimated. Dielectric measurements disclosed the presence of four relaxation processes (α-mode, β-mode, and γ-mode) and Interfacial Polarization between the system’s constituents. The comparative study ended with the calculation of energy density, so that the energy storing capability could be estimated. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer nano-composites; novolac resin; polyester resin; epoxy resin; thermosetting polymerisation; barium titanate; ferroelectric ceramic; mechanical properties; structural characterization; electric properties polymer nano-composites; novolac resin; polyester resin; epoxy resin; thermosetting polymerisation; barium titanate; ferroelectric ceramic; mechanical properties; structural characterization; electric properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Asimakopoulos, I.A.; Psarras, G.C.; Zoumpoulakis, L. Nanocomposites of Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Embedded in Thermosetting Polymer Matrices (Novolac Resin/Unsaturated Polyesters/Epoxy Resin): A Comparative Study. ChemEngineering 2019, 3, 12.

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