Next Article in Journal
Heat or Burn? Impacts of Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke and E-Cigarette Vapor Exposure on the Offspring’s Health Outcome
Next Article in Special Issue
Diabetes and Exposure to Environmental Lead (Pb)
Previous Article in Journal
Prenatal Exposure to Ambient Pesticides and Preterm Birth and Term Low Birthweight in Agricultural Regions of California
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimated Dietary Intake of Trace Metals from Swordfish Consumption: A Human Health Problem
Open AccessArticle

Lead Exposure and Oxidative Stress—A Life Course Approach in U.S. Adults

Department of Built Environment, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
Toxics 2018, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030042
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
Lead exposure and a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase—GGT), and their effects on life course variables (age, country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation) were explored in this cross-sectional study of United States (U.S.) adults’ ≥ 20 years of age via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 datasets. Country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation showed significant differences depending on the degree of lead exposure, with higher levels of exposure resulting in worse outcomes. Age and GGT were significantly associated with lead exposure. More must be done to mitigate sources of lead exposure, to prevent it from altering the life course of at-risk populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead exposure; oxidative stress; life course; lead pollution; lead and health lead exposure; oxidative stress; life course; lead pollution; lead and health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Obeng-Gyasi, E. Lead Exposure and Oxidative Stress—A Life Course Approach in U.S. Adults. Toxics 2018, 6, 42.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop