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Toxics 2018, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030042

Lead Exposure and Oxidative Stress—A Life Course Approach in U.S. Adults

Department of Built Environment, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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Abstract

Lead exposure and a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase—GGT), and their effects on life course variables (age, country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation) were explored in this cross-sectional study of United States (U.S.) adults’ ≥ 20 years of age via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 datasets. Country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation showed significant differences depending on the degree of lead exposure, with higher levels of exposure resulting in worse outcomes. Age and GGT were significantly associated with lead exposure. More must be done to mitigate sources of lead exposure, to prevent it from altering the life course of at-risk populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead exposure; oxidative stress; life course; lead pollution; lead and health lead exposure; oxidative stress; life course; lead pollution; lead and health
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Obeng-Gyasi, E. Lead Exposure and Oxidative Stress—A Life Course Approach in U.S. Adults. Toxics 2018, 6, 42.

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