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Article

Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3021, Morogoro 023, Tanzania
2
Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 8146, Oslo 454, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos A. Damalas
Toxics 2016, 4(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4040025
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
The study aimed to assess the association of long-term pesticide exposure (≥5 years) with hematological, serum biochemical parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity in farm workers. These pesticides included organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, pyrethroids, dithiocarbamates, and other pesticides such as endosulfan. Applying a cross-sectional study design, 69 females from a pesticide-exposed farm population and 30 females from a district not using pesticides (reference group) were studied. The mean red cell corpuscular volume and hematocrit values were significantly lower (74.7 ± 9.1 fl; 95% CI 72.5–76.9 and 32.0% ± 4.6%; 95% CI 30.9–33.1, respectively) in the exposed compared to the reference group, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and platelets were significantly higher (37.4 ± 3.8 g/dL; 95% CI 36.5–38.3 and 374.1 ± 95.3/L; 95% CI 351.2–396.9, respectively) in the exposed compared to the reference group. Mean serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (20.7 ± 8.9 U/L; 95% CI 18.5–22.9) and creatinine (83.9 ± 6.6 μmol/L; 95% CI 82.3–85.5) were significantly higher in the exposed compared to the reference group. A higher mean esterase activity (AChE 0.6 ± 0.2 mM/min/mg protein; 95% CI 0.56–0.7; BChE 0.9 ± 0.4 mM/min/mg protein; 95% CI 0.9–1.1) was noted in the exposed group. Regression models suggest that occupational exposure (p < 0.001) could be a predictor of esterase (AChE and BChE) activity and biochemical changes (β = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.5; β = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, respectively). Long-term pesticide exposure affects the hemato-biochemical and esterase responses, establishing the need for further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; hematological; biochemical; acetylcholine esterase activity; effects pesticides; hematological; biochemical; acetylcholine esterase activity; effects
MDPI and ACS Style

Manyilizu, W.B.; Mdegela, R.H.; Kazwala, R.; Nonga, H.; Muller, M.; Lie, E.; Skjerve, E.; Lyche, J.L. Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study. Toxics 2016, 4, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4040025

AMA Style

Manyilizu WB, Mdegela RH, Kazwala R, Nonga H, Muller M, Lie E, Skjerve E, Lyche JL. Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study. Toxics. 2016; 4(4):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4040025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manyilizu, Wilbert B., Robinson H. Mdegela, Rudovick Kazwala, Hezron Nonga, Mette Muller, Elisabeth Lie, Eystein Skjerve, and Jan L. Lyche 2016. "Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study" Toxics 4, no. 4: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4040025

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