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Foods 2018, 7(7), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7070101

Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes

1
Chair for Food and Bioprocess Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Kraft Foods R&D Inc./Mondelēz International GmbH, 82008 Unterhaching, Germany
3
ZIEL Institute for Food & Health, Technical University of Munich, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Abstract

The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF) was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk) while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient), pore sizes (0.14–0.8 µm), transmembrane pressures (0.5–2.5 bar), and temperatures (10, 50 °C) were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (<0.1% fat) was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa) were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa) at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoglobulin G; microfiltration; milk protein fractionation; ceramic membranes immunoglobulin G; microfiltration; milk protein fractionation; ceramic membranes
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Heidebrecht, H.-J.; Toro-Sierra, J.; Kulozik, U. Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes. Foods 2018, 7, 101.

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