2. Grain Supply Chain
2.2. Threshing and Cleaning
3. Postharvest Losses of Cereal Crops in Developing Countries
4. Storage Losses in Developing Countries
4.1. Insect Infestation
5. Interventions to Reduce Storage Losses for Smallholders
5.1. Chemical Fumigation
5.2. Natural Insecticides
5.3. Hermetic Storage
Conflicts of Interest
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|Crop||Maturity Moisture Content||Crop||Maturity Moisture Content|
|Type of Storage||Crop||Country||Duration of Storage||Investigations||Findings||Reference|
|SuperGrain Bags||Maize||Kenya||6 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic storage (metal silos and super grain bags) and polypropylene bags to control infestation of pests.||Metal silo was the most effective option in controlling pest infestation. |
Metal silo was equally effective in controlling pest infestation even without any insecticide use.
Supergrain bags were effective in controlling the infestation, however, the insect mortality was not complete.
Bags were perforated by a larger grain borer.
|Maize||Benin||150 days||Compared performance of hermetic bags and woven polypropylene bags for storage of maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamaiswas (Motschulsky).||Moisture levels remained unchanged in hermetic bags.|
Growth of insects (Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamaiswas) was significantly less in hermetic bags.
There were 0.5%–6% losses at end of storage compared to 19.2%–27.1% losses in woven bags.
|Rice||Bangladesh||4 months||Compared performance of hermetic bags and traditional structures for storage of rice.||Moisture content of grains remained unchanged in hermetic bags.|
A total of 97% seed germination in hermetic bags vs. 95% in traditional storage.
A total of 1% damaged grains in hermetic bags in contrary to 6% in traditional storage.
|PICS bags||Mung bean, pigeonpea||Kenya||6 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic bags for naturally and artificially infested (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)) grains.||One hundred grain weight, infestation, and grain damage remain unchanged in hermetic bags.|
There was 60.3 to 76.9% damage in mung beans and 75.8%–95.7% grain damage for pigeonpeas stored in woven polypropylene.
|Maize||Benin, Burkina Faso and Ghana||6.5 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic bags for preserving maize quality during storage.||There was 95%–100% insect mortality in hermetic bags.|
PICS bags maintained the seed viability and germination.
|Maize||Kenya||6 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic bags for naturally and artificially infested (Prostephanus truncates) grains.||There was 0%–2% weight loss in PICS bags compared to 36.3%–47.7% weight loss in woven polypropylene bags.|
There was a 13%–20.1% reduction in germination for grains stored in PICS bags compared to a 54.1%–78.4% drop for grains stored in wove bags.
|Bambara groundnut||Maradi, Niger||7 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic bags for preserving naturally infested Bambara groundnut quality during storage.||For highly infested grains, oxygen concentrations decreased significantly in hermetic bags contrary to unchanged in woven bags.|
Infestation level of C. maculatus in woven bags was 128 times higher than that of hermetic bags.
There was a 34.8%–89.3% decrease in seed viability in woven bags, whereas, there was no change in grains stored in PICS bags.
Abrasions were observed in inner HDPE bags.
|Pigeonpeas||India||8 months||Compared performance of hermetic bags vs. gunny bags for storage of pigeonpeas.||Germination of infested grains in gunny bags dropped to 44.5% compared to high germination (77%) for grains stored for 8 months in hermetic bags.|||
|Groundnuts||India||4 months||Evaluated performance of hermetic bags for preserving the quality of natural and artificial infested groundnuts.||There was a 0.8% decrease in seed weight for groundnut stored in hermetic bags compared to 7.2% in cloth bags.|
Only 1.4% weight loss for artificially infested groundnut stored in hermetic bags compared to 39.6% in cloth bag.
There was 92.3% germination for artificially infested seeds stored in hermetic bags compared to only 10% in the case of cloth bags.
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