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Photonics 2017, 4(2), 26;

Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media

Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser, PO Box 1527, GR71110 Heraklion (Crete), Greece
ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
Physikalisches Institut der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 19, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Dipartimento di Fisica Politecnico, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7639, Université Paris-Saclay, 91761 Palaiseau CEDEX, France
Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9., 6720 Szeged, Hungary
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme UV Lasers: Technologies and Applications)
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Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs) pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec) = 10−18 s) time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: high harmonic generation; attosecond pulses; ultrafast dynamics high harmonic generation; attosecond pulses; ultrafast dynamics

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Chatziathanasiou, S.; Kahaly, S.; Skantzakis, E.; Sansone, G.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Haessler, S.; Varju, K.; Tsakiris, G.D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P. Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media. Photonics 2017, 4, 26.

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