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Fractional Effective Charges and Misner-Wheeler Charge without Charge Effect in Metamaterials

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 43;
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
PDF [2544 KB, uploaded 8 July 2016]


Transformation optics enables engineering of the effective topology and dimensionality of the optical space in metamaterials. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials may mimic Kaluza-Klein theories having one or more kinds of effective charges. As a result, novel photon blockade devices may be realized. Here we demonstrate that an electromagnetic wormhole may be designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topological connectivity. Electromagnetic field configurations, which exhibit fractional effective charges, appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler “charge without charge” may be replicated. View Full-Text
Keywords: metamaterials; transformation optics; waveguide metamaterials; transformation optics; waveguide

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Smolyaninov, I. Fractional Effective Charges and Misner-Wheeler Charge without Charge Effect in Metamaterials. Photonics 2016, 3, 43.

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