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Open AccessArticle

Determination of the Biocide Econea® in Artificial Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

1
Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
2
AkzoNobel, Stoneygate Lane, Felling Gateshead, Tyne & Wear NE10 0JY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2017, 4(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations4040034
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
Econea®, or 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile, is a new type of environmentally friendly anti-fouling compound used in the immersed coatings of commercial sea going vessels. This paper reports the development of a new analytical method to directly detect the active biocide Econea® in an artificial sea water matrix using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The developed method is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/L and a limit of quantitation of 0.17 μg/L in artificial seawater. The subsequent developed method was then applied to investigate the biocide’s release from a commercially available Econea® containing paint immersed in artificial sea water over a 45-day period. It was found that the average release rate of Econea® from this paint was 4.3 ± 0.6 μg cm−2 d−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: Econea®; 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile; paint; artificial seawater; LC-MS Econea®; 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile; paint; artificial seawater; LC-MS
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Downs, R.A.; Dean, J.R.; Downer, A.; Perry, J.J. Determination of the Biocide Econea® in Artificial Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Separations 2017, 4, 34.

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