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Article

Continuous Cooling Crystallization in a Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer Technology—Design, Characterization, and Hurdles

BCI Equipment Design, TU Dortmund University, Emil-Figge-Straße 68, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
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Academic Editor: Kerstin Wohlgemuth
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091537
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 29 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Crystallization Processes and Product Design)
Continuous small-scale production is currently of utmost interest for fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. For this purpose, equipment and process concepts in consideration of the hurdles for solids handling are required to transfer conventional batch processing to continuous operation. Based on empirical equations, pressure loss constraints, and an expandable modular system, a coiled flow inverter (CFI) crystallizer with an inner diameter of 1.6 mm was designed. It was characterized concerning its residence time behavior, tested for operation with seed crystals or an ultrasonic seed crystal unit, and evaluated for different purging mechanisms for stable operation. The residence time behavior in the CFI corresponds to ideal plug flow behavior. Crystal growth using seed crystals was demonstrated in the CFI for two amino acids. For fewer seed crystals, higher crystal growth rates were determined, while at the same time, secondary nucleation was observed. Feasibility for the interconnection of a sonicated seeding crystal unit could be shown. However, the hurdles are also identified and discussed. Prophylactic flushing combined with a photosensor for distinguishing between solvent and suspension phase can lead to stable and resource-efficient operation. The small-scale CFI technology was investigated in detail, and the limits and opportunities of the technology are presented here. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; coiled tubular crystallizer; continuous crystallization; cooling crystallization; mini-channel equipment; non-invasive sensors; residence time distribution; rinse cycles amino acids; coiled tubular crystallizer; continuous crystallization; cooling crystallization; mini-channel equipment; non-invasive sensors; residence time distribution; rinse cycles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmalenberg, M.; Kreis, S.; Weick, L.K.; Haas, C.; Sallamon, F.; Kockmann, N. Continuous Cooling Crystallization in a Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer Technology—Design, Characterization, and Hurdles. Processes 2021, 9, 1537. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091537

AMA Style

Schmalenberg M, Kreis S, Weick LK, Haas C, Sallamon F, Kockmann N. Continuous Cooling Crystallization in a Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer Technology—Design, Characterization, and Hurdles. Processes. 2021; 9(9):1537. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmalenberg, Mira, Stephanie Kreis, Lena K. Weick, Christian Haas, Fabian Sallamon, and Norbert Kockmann. 2021. "Continuous Cooling Crystallization in a Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer Technology—Design, Characterization, and Hurdles" Processes 9, no. 9: 1537. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091537

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