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Modeling of the Refractive Index for the Systems MX+H2O, M2X+H2O, H3BO3+MX+H2O, and H3BO3+M2X+H2O. M = K+, Na+, or Li+ and X = Cl or SO42

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Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile
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Programa Institucional de Fomento a la Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación (PIDi), Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Ecuador N° 3519, Estacíon Central, Santiago 9170124, Chile
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Carrera de Ingeniería Química, Facultad Nacional de Ingeniería, Universidad Técnica de Oruro, P.O. Box 49, Oruro, Bolivia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ottavia Giuffrè and Luisa A. Neves
Processes 2021, 9(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030525
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
The modeling of the refractive index for binary aqueous solutions of boric acid, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium sulfate, lithium sulfate, and potassium sulfate, as well as ternary aqueous solutions of boric acid in the presence of sodium sulfate, lithium sulfate, or potassium chloride, is reported. The refraction index was represented by molar refraction. It was described as the sum of solutes’ partial molar refraction and solvent molar refraction. The solutes’ partial molar refraction was estimated from the molar refraction of the binary solutions. The excess molar refraction for these systems was described with the equation of Wang et al. The polarizability of the solutes present in the studied systems was estimated using the Lorenz–Lorenz relation. The results showed the model is appropriate for describing the systems studied; the interactions of boric acid, sodium, potassium, lithium, chloride, and sulfate ions with water molecules are relevant to explain the molar refraction and refractive index, and those for the binary systems of lithium chloride and sodium chloride are also relevant the ion–ion interactions. The model is robust and presents estimation capabilities within and beyond the concentrations and temperature range studied. Therefore, the outcomes represent valuable information to understand and follow the industrial processing of natural brines. View Full-Text
Keywords: refractive index; polarization coefficient; modeling; boric acid; lithium; alkaline; sulfate; chloride refractive index; polarization coefficient; modeling; boric acid; lithium; alkaline; sulfate; chloride
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alavia, W.; Soto, I.; Lovera, J.A. Modeling of the Refractive Index for the Systems MX+H2O, M2X+H2O, H3BO3+MX+H2O, and H3BO3+M2X+H2O. M = K+, Na+, or Li+ and X = Cl or SO42. Processes 2021, 9, 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030525

AMA Style

Alavia W, Soto I, Lovera JA. Modeling of the Refractive Index for the Systems MX+H2O, M2X+H2O, H3BO3+MX+H2O, and H3BO3+M2X+H2O. M = K+, Na+, or Li+ and X = Cl or SO42. Processes. 2021; 9(3):525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alavia, Wilson, Ismael Soto, and Jorge A. Lovera. 2021. "Modeling of the Refractive Index for the Systems MX+H2O, M2X+H2O, H3BO3+MX+H2O, and H3BO3+M2X+H2O. M = K+, Na+, or Li+ and X = Cl or SO42" Processes 9, no. 3: 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030525

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