The main sensitivity parameters of the Holmquist–Johnson–Cook constitutive model for coal were obtained from a variety of tests such as uniaxial compression, uniaxial cyclic loading, splitting and triaxial compression tests, as well as the indirect derivation equation of a briquette. The mechanical properties of briquettes under dynamic impact were investigated using a split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment. Based on the experimental measurement of the Holmquist–Johnson–Cook constitutive model, the numerical simulation of briquette was performed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. A comparison between experimental and simulation results verified the correctness of simulation parameters. This research concluded that the failure of briquette at different impact velocities started from an axial crack in the middle of the coal body, and the sample was swollen to some extent. By the increase of impact velocity, the severity of damage in the coal body was increased, while the size of the coal block was decreased. Moreover, there was good compliance between experimental and simulated stress wave curves in terms of coal sample failure and fracture morphology at different speeds. Finally, the parameters of the validated Holmquist–Johnson–Cook constitutive model were applied to the numerical simulation model of the impact damage of heading face and the process of coal seam damage in the roadway was visually displayed. The obtained results showed that the Holmquist–Johnson–Cook constitutive model parameters suitable for the prominent coal body were of great significance for the improvement and exploration of the occurrence mechanism of coal and rock dynamic disasters.
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