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Article

Application of Electronic Nose for Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Process Effects at Full-Scale WWTP

1
Department of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Woman Health, Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Fundamentals of Technology, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
4
Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, University of Opole, 45-032 Opole, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050251
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment Processes)
This paper presents the results of studies aiming at the assessment and classification of wastewater using an electronic nose. During the experiment, an attempt was made to classify the medium based on an analysis of signals from a gas sensor array, the intensity of which depended on the levels of volatile compounds in the headspace gas mixture above the wastewater table. The research involved samples collected from the mechanical and biological treatment devices of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as wastewater analysis. The measurements were carried out with a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gas sensor array, when coupled with a computing unit (e.g., a computer with suitable software for the analysis of signals and their interpretation), it formed an e-nose—that is, an imitation of the mammalian olfactory sense. While conducting the research it was observed that the intensity of signals sent by sensors changed with drops in the level of wastewater pollution; thus, the samples could be classified in terms of their similarity and the analyzed gas-fingerprint could be related to the pollution level expressed by physical and biochemical indicators. Principal component analysis was employed for dimensionality reduction, and cluster analysis for grouping observation purposes. Supervised learning techniques confirmed that the obtained data were applicable for the classification of wastewater at different stages of the purification process. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; wastewater treatment processes; wastewater quality; odor nuisances; gas sensor array; multidimensional data analysis electronic nose; wastewater treatment processes; wastewater quality; odor nuisances; gas sensor array; multidimensional data analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Łagód, G.; Duda, S.M.; Majerek, D.; Szutt, A.; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, A. Application of Electronic Nose for Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Process Effects at Full-Scale WWTP. Processes 2019, 7, 251. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050251

AMA Style

Łagód G, Duda SM, Majerek D, Szutt A, Dołhańczuk-Śródka A. Application of Electronic Nose for Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Process Effects at Full-Scale WWTP. Processes. 2019; 7(5):251. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050251

Chicago/Turabian Style

Łagód, Grzegorz, Sylwia M. Duda, Dariusz Majerek, Adriana Szutt, and Agnieszka Dołhańczuk-Śródka. 2019. "Application of Electronic Nose for Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Process Effects at Full-Scale WWTP" Processes 7, no. 5: 251. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050251

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